You Are About To Take A Brief And Redesign The Interior Of A House Built In The 1950 3156277

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THE VISUAL LANGUAGE OF DESIGN
1
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SPACE PLANNING 1
INDEX
PAGE
SPACE PLANNING AND PROPORTION 4
FURNITURE LAYOUTS 13
THE NEXT STEP IN SPACE PLANNING 23
STYLING AN EXISTING ROOM 24
LIVING ROOM 25
SOFA 26
ARMCHAIR 27
FIREPLACE 27
COFFEE TABLE 28
TV/MEDIA UNIT 28
SEATING ARRANGEMENTS 29
DINING ROOM 32
SEATING ARRANGEMENTS 33
KITCHEN 35
BATHROOM 42
BEDROOM 48
STORAGE 51
HALLWAY 53
HOME OFFICE 55
LAUNDRY ROOM 57
OUTSIDE SPACE 59
FLOOR PLANS 62
READING THE PLAN 62
TITLE BLOCKS 65
SCALE 66
SCALE BAR 67
DRAFTING 68
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SPACE PLANNING 2
DRAFTING TOOLS 69
COMPASS 69
RULERS 70
T-SQUARE 70
TEMPLATES 71
DRAFTING BOARDS AND TABLES 71
LETTERING 72
LINE WORK 74
LINE WEIGHTS 76
LINE TYPES 77
DIMENSIONS 79
SYMBOLS 81
DEVELOPING A BASIC FLOOR PLAN 85
MEASURING A ROOM 87
FLOOR PLAN CHECK LIST 89
ELEVATIONS 90
SECTION PLANS 91
ASSIGNMENT FOUR 92
THE BRIEF 92
THE TASK 93
THE PLAN 94
HOW DO I CREATE MY PLAN? 95
SOFTWARE 97
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SPACE PLANNING
3
SPACE
PLANNING AND
PROPORTION
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SPACE PLANNING 4
SPACE PLANNING AND PROPORTION
Space planning is to plan a space with its allocation, divisions, arrangement, and
organisation to accommodate the functional, spatial and occupancy requirements in form
of space layout and final planning.
This involves creating a ‘space plan’ which is a drawing that shows the arrangement of
functional elements within a space.
Floor plans created using SketchUp
The practical and aesthetic issues of space overlap, but have very different technical
requirements. Practical considerations of space planning involve dealing with the physical
dimensions of a space.
In a given area, these issues are related to the actual measurement of available floor
space and an actual measurement of the ceiling height. This is the practical, reality-based
consideration that must be part of your design planning.
Elevations created using SketchUp
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SPACE PLANNING 5
There is also an aesthetic sense of space that you must consider in order to develop an
optimum design.
Once you have established the raw physical volume of space with which you will work and
you have taken detailed information about how the space will be used when the design is
completed, you can then begin to evaluate how you will plan the true, practical use of the
space in relationship to the aesthetic sense of space.
In order to control the outcome you must first ask yourself, as you have in Module
3, what outcome does the job require?
If you have gone through that exercise you have already decided on some general criteria,
as suggested in Module 3.
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SPACE PLANNING
6
You would have already asked yourself questions like:
Do you want a large open space?
Do you want to feel safe and cosy?
Sometimes a big space needs to be broken down into smaller sections, in order to have a
conversation.
Sometimes a ceiling feels too low.
Other times a ceiling feels too high. There are visual devices for creating illusions in a space
that open it up or break it down.
The need for such devices to manipulate the aesthetic perception of a space must first be
identified.
Space is always a fixed dimension in your work. It is also a variable in the way it can be
perceived and to what use it will be allocated. First the true, raw space must be understood
before it can be manipulated.
Remember too that space isn’t just the floor space.
Floor space – which is the horizontal space – is expressed as a floor plan.
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SPACE PLANNING 7
Space is also the vertical dimension of the ceiling or wall height and is expressed
as an elevation.
Elevation created using SketchUp
In a space with multiple functions, a change in floor and/or ceiling heights might define
specific functional areas and make the whole space more interesting.
If there isn’t room for the use of such devices, there are other ways to define these areas;
we will discuss these in Module 5 (Lighting) and Module 7 (Finishes).
In any case, if there is a need to create definition of various areas in a multi-function room,
the possibility of changing ceiling or floor heights should be considered. There are times
when this works well even in a very small area. A tiny space can become extremely useful,
effective and beautiful if it is just well thought through.
A ceiling height can appear to bring down the level of focus, to emphasise something or
detract from something else, as antique flags in a loft space would bring the eye down to a
seating area and detract the eye from an exposed fire alarm on the ceiling.
Planning for the use of something double height can also achieve a sense of intimacy on the
ground.
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Sometimes the ceiling level can appear to be raised with clever wall lighting that blurs the
line between wall and ceiling, as in a standard apartment with lower than ideal ceiling height.
Walls can appear to move back with the correct choices of fixtures, colours, mirrors and
finishes in a bathroom.
On a practical level, removing walls can increase space of a living and dining area, providing
room for more uses while appearing to increase the overall size of the room.
This device is therefore both practical and a matter of perception.
To explain this further, in practical terms you will need a minimum of approximately
1000mm, which is 1 metre (3ft) of clearance to easily walk around an object in a residential
design.
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You will also need room to pull chairs out if the object is a dining table. In a closed-in kitchen
and dining room you will need 1 metre (3ft) between the chairs at a table and the wall.
On the other side of the wall you will need a minimum of another metre to walk around a
free-standing work island or breakfast bar.
But if you remove the wall you can reduce that amount of clearance around the breakfast
bar and the dining table by at least 25% because you will be sharing the clearance space
between these two fixed objects.
So the room will appear more open and will actually use less space for two functions.
This is important to remember if you are working on a project in which you are called upon
to lay out raw space or provide space planning for a renovation.
Strategically, removing a wall can add more function to limited space and still make the
room feel less crowded.
Keep in mind when you are planning open space that room dividers can be used to make
open space flexible, and to give it some definition.
Think of where you could place a room divider in the plan below:
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Shoji screens, sliding screens on tracks, bookshelves, beautiful curtains and free-standing
folding screens can all be used to define space without closing it in.
Also, furniture arrangements can create islands of activity in an open space.
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When considering a small space, look up and look through the wall. Can you add a skylight
to raise the eye and create a new dimension in a small area?
Light opens the perception of space!
Can you add or enlarge windows?
Even if you can’t use windows or skylights to create a sense of space, you can use artificial
light to a similar effect in order to achieve a sense of openness.
We will discuss this in the next module.
Be aware that the use of these lighting devices comes first with identifying the need for
them in your space plan.
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SPACE PLANNING 12
FURNITURE
LAYOUTS
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13
FURNITURE LAYOUTS
A fundamental consideration when planning space is how the objects in the rooms will be
arranged relative to each other.
This is both a practical consideration and an aesthetic one.
You need to ask the following questions:
What is the function of the room?
¦ Who uses it?
¦ How often is it used?
¦ What furniture is required?
¦ Does the room have more than one function?
What are the traffic patterns of this room?
¦ Where can you not place furniture because it will be in the way of people moving
about the room? Remember that furniture pushed back against the wall seems
uninviting.
¦ Does the furniture placement allow for doors and drawers to open?
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What is the focal point of the room?
¦ Is it a view, a painting, the fireplace, a grouping of furniture or some other
dominant feature which provides a centre of interest?
¦ Emphasise this feature when planning the furniture layout.
How should furniture be placed?
¦ Is furniture balanced throughout the room? (Check by dividing your floor plan into
four equal parts with a pencil).
¦ Does furniture in different parts of the room suit the intended function (e.g. for
reading, conversing or eating)?
¦ Are power points and lights in the right place?
How should objects of varying heights be arranged?
¦ Consider proportion and scale so that the eye is not distracted by extreme
variations in height, resulting in visual clutter.
¦ Items with height progression or groupings of variable heights work well together
and create unity in a room.
¦ Arrange other items around the tallest object in the room (often the fireplace
mantel) which lead the eye up to that height.
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SPACE PLANNING 15
Objects arranged so the eye has to jump up and down to take it all in tend to make a space
feel more frantic and less peaceful. This in turn feels like clutter. It is actually visual clutter.
Even if objects of varying height must be arranged in one room, planning how these heights
will relate in a group, or in a progression, is part of space planning.
For example, fireplace mantels are often the tallest surface in a room.
If the objects around them lead the eye up to the mantel – and even above it, then the
entire shape will read as one and the space will not seem as full or as busy.
We discussed this in Module 1 when we introduced the idea of negative space and positive
space.
Arranging a row of chairs under a large painting or mirror along a wall, or in front of a
handrail, creates a mass of positive space. These objects unite in the way the eye perceives
them.
This same arrangement presents a less cluttered, stronger use of these objects than if the
chairs sat separately on their own.
So, whether in a small space or a larger one, this arrangement presents a stronger and
more spacious arrangement.
Another very common example is how dining tables and chairs are higher than most sofas
and armchairs. In open living/dining areas, be sure that the dining area doesn’t appear to
tower over the seating area. This is a consideration when developing the furniture layout.
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A low pendant light over the dining table will bring the eye down lower so the eye will scan
the room at an even height.
Another device to alleviate this problem is positioning the sofa as a room divider.
What height will each piece be? Can other choices be made?
What relationship will the various pieces have to each other?
What elements can be added or emphasised to allow the eye to see a grouping of objects,
rather than disconnected ones at varying heights?
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What additional items can balance or separate objects of extremely different heights to
enable the eye to gradually step up and down rather than jumping around from one to
another?
Towering objects tend to bear down on the observer and can make a space feel smaller.
Any free-standing line below eye level i.e. below 1200mm, which is 1.2m (4ft), will feel less
obstructive in a space.
At the same time, objects positioned on a wall can be organised to read as a total shape,
rather than separate shapes that move the eye up and down.
Also, solid, opaque materials occupy more perceived space than transparent and reflective
materials.
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Complicated designs, patterns and bright colours tend to come forward.
Simple shapes and designs, solid colours (especially light ones) and softly moving fabrics
tend to open a space, or at least not impinge on it.
The issue of colour, and using monochromatic choices versus high contrast or multi-colour
choices, will be discussed further in Module 6.
Identifying the need to use colour devices to aesthetically manipulate the perception of
space is another issue that needs to be identified as you develop your space plan.
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When developing a furniture layout – what will meet your eye when you walk through the
door into the space in question?
Will it be a low console? Will it be a low bench? Will it be a tall cabinet? Will it be a sofa?
Will the piece be a tall, patterned and lacquered timber cabinet against a solid painted
feature wall?
Or will it be a low, mirrored console in front of a sheer movable room divider?
Will the best choice be a narrow, airy piece that acknowledges a small entrance without
obstructing it?
All of these choices will look fantastic if you understand in what situation you would make
one choice over the other.
Also, remember there is a foreground, a middle ground, and a background in a room, just
as in a painting.
If there is only one entrance to the room, you can easily understand how the room will
unfold from the vantage point of the entrance.
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If there are a number of entrances or the room is large, you must consider how the objects
and groups of objects unfold from a number of angles.
When developing your space plan you should be thinking a little ahead of yourself.
Remember, on a floor plan, dimensionally each of a number of choices will look the same.
So you must remember the space plan is both practical and aesthetic even as you do the
first layout.
You have to be sure that on a practical level the pieces required and the pieces you propose
will dimensionally fit comfortably in a raw space, and will also perform the function required.
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This includes ergonomic considerations:
Lamps at the left shoulder behind a chair are thought to provide the ideal lighting for
reading.
Coffee tables need to be about 600mm (2ft) from the front of a sofa – so you can reach the
coffee table easily, but not hit your shins when you try to take a seat.
You also have to consider the aesthetic use of the space and how it affects one’s perception
of it. Sometimes these considerations merge. It is hard to enjoy the beauty of a room if it
isn’t comfortable. An example of this is a tall chair facing a low sofa and coffee table. On
paper this may look like a good conversation group.
In reality it may be uncomfortable for both the person on the sofa, who feels lower than he
actually may be, and for the person in the chair, who may not be able to reach the coffee
table without a big stretch. Like all design considerations, space planning is a 3-dimensional
issue.
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SPACE PLANNING 22
THE NEXT
STEP IN SPACE
PLANNING
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THE NEXT STEP IN SPACE PLANNING
How you move through a space is a physical and ergonomic experience. This is both practical
and aesthetic.
If you are bothered and frantic because the space plan jumbles up simple activities, you will
start to dislike other things about the room.
¦ Ease of movement and effortlessly achieving tasks make for good morale.
¦ Closets need to be accessible.
¦ Windows need to be easy to reach to open and close.
¦ It should be simple to see the TV and to change music on the stereo.
¦ Kitchen cabinets shouldn’t bang you in the head.
¦ A dishwasher shouldn’t obstruct the flow of work in a galley kitchen.
¦ Hitting knees on obstructions and banging into closely grouped furniture is not
pleasant.
¦ Make sure the circulation in a room is free and easy.
¦ Make the most of a view or natural light.
Even if you want to make the room feel close and cosy you can achieve this with tightly
grouped open storage, lighting techniques, or colour.
You will still want to move easily and unencumbered in the space, even though it may not
be large.
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STYLING AN EXISTING ROOM
You may have existing furniture and objects that you have to use in this room.
While it is often easier for a designer to start a project with a clean slate, very often
furniture, objects or fixtures must be retained.
Sometimes a job is just styling a room with existing belongings.
Observing the concepts of effortless circulation and grouping objects to form pleasing areas
both in plan and elevation, you can usually make vast improvements with rooms that had
previously evolved without the conscious application of design principles.
Also, don’t forget the way the eye scans the room and the arrangement of objects of varying
heights. Apply the consideration of how it looks from the entrances, and the view across
the space. Add to this the consideration of the foreground, middle ground and background.
These are often called the sight lines in a space. Measure the height, width and depth of all
the existing pieces in the space, photocopy them and cut them out.
Use your floor plan and elevation templates for the space, and see how you can arrange
existing pieces in groupings that provide functional groups, and provide balance, harmony,
repetition, rhythm, etc.
When you start working out your optimum plan, there are some basic rules of thumb to
keep in mind, which may be helpful.
There are basic layouts that tend to work in various spaces and they are explained over the
following pages.
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LIVING ROOM
Planning the layout of a living room is all about creating zones for different activities – from
relaxing around the fire or watching television, to reading or listening to music.
This can be predominately achieved with the positioning of furniture.
However, in getting the functionality of the room right, you also need to ensure that the
room looks both attractive and welcoming.
A living room is generally regarded as the most public space in a house, because it is the
room that most visitors will be invited into.
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SOFA
If the living room has a fireplace, it is natural to group the seating around it.
In many modern homes, the fire as a focal point of the room has now been replaced by a TV,
and sofas and chairs are usually gathered around it in the same way. Whichever is the case
in the home, a single sofa is best placed opposite a focal wall in a central position.
A pair of sofas look best adjacent to a focal wall at either side of the fireplace or TV, or at
right angles to each other (in a square room, one sofa could sit opposite the focal wall and
the other opposite the window).
Ensure that the sofas are the correct proportions for the room and that there is enough
space between them to manoeuvre around easily.
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ARMCHAIR
Two sofas are preferable to a sofa and an armchair, because they are more comfortable, but
if you only have space for a sofa and an extra armchair or two, the trick is to position them
correctly. Create a comfortable arrangement around your focal point so that when people
are seated, everyone else is visible. In a long thin room, an armchair can also be positioned
separately from this central grouping to create a reading zone in a corner or at the end of
the room.
FIREPLACE
If the room is a blank canvas and you can choose where to put a fireplace, establish which
will be your focal wall. If your room is square, place the fire centrally on the wall. If you have
a long thin room divided into a seating area and a dining area, place the fireplace centrally
in one half of the room.
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COFFEE TABLE
Adding a coffee table to a living room does more than just create a surface to put things on;
it makes a second focal point or zone for sociable relaxation. The best place for a coffee table
is centrally in front of the most used seat in the room, either a sofa or a pair of armchairs,
and within reach of any other seats. Don’t be tempted to squeeze in a large table that won’t
let you move around comfortably.
TV/MEDIA UNIT
If there is no fireplace in the living room, it is likely that the TV will form the focal point of
the room. If the room is small and there’s little space for a large TV, a wall-hung model is a
good, if not particularly attractive, option. Before you choose which wall to put it on, decide
how to group your seating.
Then choose a spot where everyone can see the screen when seated. Don’t hang it too high,
as you’ll be sitting or lying down to watch the TV. If you have enough space, you can have
a fireplace in the room and the TV will sit in the corner.
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SEATING ARRANGEMENTS
Where you place your furniture in a room will instantly set the tone for how you’ll live in
that room. Here are a few seating arrangements whether you’re relaxing, watching TV or
chatting with friends.
4 Way Seating
4 way seating grouping is flexible and can float in the middle of a room or sit up against the
wall. It encourages conversation and eye contact.
Very often it can be used to optimise a view from the sofa while adding extra seating.
Be aware of the natural desire for personal space. Unless this is for family use, the sofa will
need to be large enough for strangers to feel comfortable sitting on it together.
2 Sofas and Coffee Table
There is a certain formality in the symmetry of this arrangement. This arrangement also
encourages eye contact and conversation.
Be aware of the matter of personal space, as discussed in the previous arrangement.
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Sofas against the walls
Sofa as room divider
This arrangement is an important space saver and is
also ideal for looking out across the room.
As illustrated previously, this arrangement works ideally
for open floor plans and multi-use rooms.
Whether using two sofas or a sofa and chair, L- shaped
seating encourages conversation while also saving
space by anchoring against the wall.
It also allows both pieces of furniture to face the same
entertainment, view or fireplace.
L- Shaped Seating
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On a plan the four chair arrangement may look more suitable for a reception area. However,
the scale of the chairs can change this use entirely.
Four big arm chairs around a circular coffee table can be a large, casual and very comfortable
way to seat four with eye contact, and also will give some sense of individual privacy for
reading and relaxing.
This arrangement works well in front of a fireplace or near a window with a view. This is a
somewhat more formal arrangement. These chairs may be occasional chairs (such as Louis
XV armchairs) with a higher table to the centre.
This would be decorative and good for a cup of tea and a conversation, rather than TV
watching or long periods of relaxation.
Multiple Groups of Sofas
Four Chairs
For large living spaces you will need several groups that relate to, and complement each
other. Sometimes these will be sofas and chairs anchored by a wall. Other times these will
be sofas and chairs placed in the middle of the floor.
This has to do with your decisions about sight lines and the foreground, middle ground and
background of the space.
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It also allows for and affects activities in the space.
In the figure shown, note how the long banquette seating along the wall is long enough for
multiple activities to occur on it.
At one end there are three chairs around a low table so a conversation can take place
independent of the activities at the other end of the banquette.
Completely separate to that are armchairs facing a chaise, and the chaise is facing a free
standing entertainment unit, which is also a divider separating the living space from the
dining space.
Note how placement of floor coverings strengthens the space plan and helps to define the
layout.
DINING ROOM
Positioning your dining table so it doesn’t impinge on your work triangle may prove to be
difficult if space is tight, as there should ideally be a metre (3ft) of space for moving behind
every chair.
If you do not regularly need to seat people on all sides of the table, position the table
against a wall and only move it into the middle of the room when you need to lay an extra
place or two.
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SEATING ARRANGEMENTS
Large table to centre
This traditional arrangement requires the space for all
chairs to move easily.
Table against wall
This is a space saving device that can be very pleasing.
Round table with no head
Square table – 4 to 8 chairs
There is a different conversational dynamic that occurs
at a round or oval table, which is something to consider.
This arrangement also fits into a different sized space.
This is a handy way to have a flexible table shape that
fits four or eight. The intimacy of dining with four or
less is not sacrificed. Also this may satisfy different
space requirements than a long table for eight or ten.
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Table to rear of sofa
Placing the table to the rear of a sofa for combined
living and dining is another device for open floor plans
and space saving in a multi-function room.
The table and chairs are a key piece of furniture – whether they will be going in your kitchen,
a dining room, or an open-plan living area.
Decide if you would rather prioritise a convivial atmosphere or spacious dining, and whether
you prefer a sophisticated, integrated look or a more relaxed setting.
As a minimum, the table needs to be large enough to accommodate the usual number of
diners, and if you regularly have guests you should also think about the logistics of fitting
extra people in.
The space available is the other major consideration, and particularly in a kitchen, you need
to ensure there will be plenty of room to manoeuvre around it once it is in place.
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KITCHEN
To create a smoothly functioning kitchen, it is helpful to understand the concept of the work
triangle.
As a basic design principle – although it’s not always possible – you should always aim for
a work triangle between the refrigerator, sink and stove, with the sink at the apex of the
triangle and no objects to walk around between the three points.
This arrangement is recommended for maximum convenience and safety, allowing the
occupants to move freely between the three activity centres.
COOKING AREA
When cooking, you need to quickly and easily be able to obtain ingredients from the
refrigerator and also to transfer used pots and pans to the sink or surrounding worktop. To
this end, the maximum recommended distance between points of the work triangle is 3m
(10ft), in a straight line.
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CLEANING AREA
Moving from the refrigerator to the sink to rinse your food, on to the cooking area, then
back to the sink with your used pots – all of this is made much simpler if you can avoid any
thoroughfares intruding on your work triangle.
Another thing that will aid economy of movement is locating your dishwasher as close
as possible to the sink, so that any pans left to soak have to travel the shortest possible
distance afterwards.
FOOD STORAGE AREA
As an example of how the work triangle operates, consider the refrigerator.
Food taken from here will either need to go straight to the cooking area or else be taken to
the sink and rinsed first.
For smooth functioning, neither of these routes should be too great a distance, nor should
they be impeded by units or furniture.
WORKTOP SPACE
The points of the triangle should not be too close together either.
Where possible, for example, it is good to allow a decent stretch of worktop between
the refrigerator and cooker as a space for food preparation. Aim to leave a minimum of
1100mm (3.5ft) between points.
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Here are six basic layouts that work well for different room dimensions:
GALLEY – ONE WALL
This is a single unit placed against one wall. It is ideal for many small apartments and terrace
houses. The entire length should be at least three metres to ensure sufficient benchtop
space.
You could consider an undercounter refrigerator to maximise the worktop area. If desired,
the entire kitchen can be screened off using folding doors or partitions.
GALLEY – TWO WALLS
This is the layout preferred by many professional chefs. Comprised of counters on both
sides of the room with a corridor down the middle, this layout provides generous amounts of
bench space. It works best if the corridor is closed off at one end, as congestion can result
if people are constantly using it as a thoroughfare.
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ISLAND
This layout is ideal in large, open plan areas adjoining a living or dining area, because it
gives a feeling of openness and allows guests to interact socially with the cook, while staying
out of the way on the opposite side of the island.
L-SHAPED
This is a versatile layout which also combines well with a living area and is suited to a large
space. It’s a particularly good choice if there are two enthusiastic cooks in the household,
allowing them each plenty of room to work.
It allows space for a dining table to be included without interfering with the routes between
the corners of the work triangle. If not sited against a wall, one leg of the ‘L’ can also act as
a breakfast bar.
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U-SHAPED
Grouping units and appliances around three sides of a room, the U-shaped kitchen is safe,
efficient, offers maximum storage and is suited to either medium or small rooms. In a very
large space, however, the work areas may be too far apart for comfort.
OPEN PLAN
An open plan kitchen is the most popular style today because it is generally open to the
dining area and living area.
It often incorporates an island bench and creates a seamless flow between kitchen and
entertaining areas.
Remember that the arrangement of appliances is the basic consideration in a kitchen plan.
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Before you get under way with planning the look of the kitchen, think about how it will work
on a functional level. As well as considering each component to be included, it is worth
asking yourself some general questions about the room. Does it need to double up as a
dining area? Or do you need to organise the space so that people can get on with different
jobs at the same time?
COOKER
As the cooker is the third point of the work triangle, its ideal location will be partly determined
by the relative positioning of the sink and refrigerator.
Placing your cooker is made simpler if you have an all-in-one unit combining oven and hob.
If the hob is separate from the oven, on a kitchen island for example, the oven should be
within easy reach – immediately behind, perhaps, or in an adjacent run of units.
As you may have to transfer food from the hob to the oven and back again, the two
components shouldn’t be more than 1200mm (4ft) apart.
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DISHWASHER
The best place for the dishwasher is right next to, or beneath, the sink so you can rinse
plates and unstack them onto the draining board if necessary. It can also be connected up
to the water supply and drain without extra plumbing costs.
KITCHEN SINK
The sink is the second point of the work triangle so think about its positioning early on, at
the same time you decide where the cooker and refrigerator will go. Remember that you
need space in this part of the kitchen to be able to clean food or wash up without impinging
on other work areas. Make sure it isn’t situated in a main thoroughfare either.
KITCHEN UNITS
When deciding where your storage units will go, think about where the contents should be
kept for easy access. Your units will also provide worktop space, so consider where you
want this – some large kitchens have a separate island of units in the middle of the floor for
this reason. Wherever the units are positioned, make sure there is space for the doors and
drawers to open comfortably.
REFRIGERATOR
Make the placement of the refrigerator, or fridge-freezer, one of your earliest considerations
because it comprises part of the work triangle. Also bear in mind that if you want your
refrigerator to operate at maximum efficiency, you need to position it slightly away from heat
sources such as radiators and dishwashers, as well as the oven. If you want a refrigerator
equipped with an ice dispenser, position it near the water supply so it can be connected up.
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BATHROOM
A bathroom needs careful planning, so before thinking about how you would like it to look,
consider the practical issues. How the room will be used, and which individual components
will work best.
Will more than one person regularly use the room at the same time? Do you need to
make space for double sinks? Should you install a separate shower? How can the room be
organised to make it work well for everyone?
Basic arrangements in a bathroom are related to the work area, easy maintenance and
privacy. Be sure to allow clearance space around the toilet.
The bathroom also has to cater to the needs of a family’s busy morning routines, facilitating
fast and hassle free preparation for dashing out the door and off to work or school looking
unflustered, clean and well groomed. Hence the current popularity of double basins.
There are basic fixtures in a bathroom – the bathtub and shower, a separate shower recess if
room allows, toilet and washbasin unit plus storage. Though they are not common in many
places, some clients will also request a bidet, which should be placed beside the toilet.
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BATH
Plan the room’s layout and functionality around the bath, since it is the biggest item and you
may have little choice about where it will sit.
If space is an issue, choose a bath that sits against a wall, and ideally into a corner. If
you have a larger room, consider installing a freestanding bath, but check first with your
plumber that it won’t cause drainage issues. Consider, too, where bath taps will be positioned.
Freestanding baths, for example don’t usually have taps attached, so they will have to be
fixed to the wall or be “floor standing”.
If your bath is to have a shower above it, the bath should be positioned right against the
wall and screened to prevent water spillage.
Ensure the bath is long enough to be comfortable for the tallest member of the household.
HANDBASIN
Ideally the handbasin should sit within easy reach of the toilet, and with a solid wall (rather
than say, a window) behind so you can hang a mirror above it. Before choosing a handbasin
and locating the best position for it, give some thought to the storage you’ll need.
If storage space is tight, consider getting a vanity unit with a sink set into it, or sitting on a
shelving unit or cupboard, rather than opting for a simple pedestal handbasin. This choice
may affect your layout, so check the dimensions of the unit carefully first to make sure it
will fit into the bathroom plan.
Handbasins should be placed with enough space in front for the user to comfortably bend
over it. To install a handbasin that can be used comfortably, it should have about 1-1.1
metres of clearance around the front.
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Observe how these plans can be improved with careful choice plumbing fixtures:
Space in a small bathroom/toilet can be freed up considerably if you acquaint yourself with
some of the available plumbing fixtures.
See how much floor space can be saved when the correct fixtures are specified.
There are lots of beautiful plumbing fixtures on the market which may be very effective for
one space but unsuitable for another space.
Be aware of space saving tricks, such as running taps from the wall instead of mounting
them on the sink. This could save you 100mm or more of space, which in a tight bathroom
could be significant.
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SHOWER
If space allows, install a separate shower, particularly if this is the only bathroom in the
house. Sit it along the same wall as the bath and choose a shower tray the same depth for
a streamlined look, and to make plumbing and drainage easier. If you have space, a walk–in
shower looks luxurious.
If the ceiling slopes, put the shower in the tallest part of the room (and take the extra height
of the shower tray into account).
STORAGE UNITS
Bathrooms benefit from as much storage as possible. Include shelving for toiletries, towel
rails and hooks for clothes or bathrobes – all within reach of the bath or shower. A wallhung cupboard for bottles, medicines, and cleaning products is also useful, as are shelves
to stack unused towels. Or have storage space built behind a bath panel and accessed via
a small door.
For a streamlined look, pick vanity units or cupboards below the sink with plenty of storage
space.
The final accessories to place are a mirror or mirrors over the basin/s, towel holders, hangers
for robes and a toilet roll holder.
If the ventilation is inadequate this will have to be addressed and, in cooler climates,
heating may need to be provided with heated towel rails or underfloor heating.
If underfloor heating is not possible, then consider a warmer flooring material underfoot
than tiles, which can be hard on bare feet on a cold winter’s morning. Cork tiles are a much
underused flooring for bathrooms, but are perfectly suitable if well sealed.
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All surfaces need to be water impermeable and able to resist mildew. All paintwork should
have a mildew resistant undercoat and be oil-based.
If the bathroom you are working on is particularly small and cannot be enlarged without
major building work that is outside the client’s budget, consider relieving the pressure by
looking carefully to see if some of its functions could be placed elsewhere.
If it doubles as a laundry, the washing machine and dryer may be able to be moved to the
kitchen or a large built-in cupboard. There may be a way to remove the toilet from the
main bathroom and create a separate space for it elsewhere in the house. Investigate all
possibilities.
TOILET
Usually, the best place to place the toilet is on or adjacent to an outside wall. This makes
drainage much simpler and usually means that the toilet sits beneath a window or extractor
fan, too. It should also be either opposite or next to the sink for convenience.
If the toilet is to sit adjacent to an outside wall, bear in mind that the size of the soil pipe
will mean that boxing-in will be needed to hide it from view, although this boxing-in could
be used as extra skirting level shelf space. As with all sanitary ware, there is a range of
configurations and size for toilets, so if space is an issue, shop around before you make a
choice.
The toilet should not be the first thing visible when entering the bathroom. In a large space,
it can be concealed behind a panel. Make sure there is at least 50cm between the rim of the
seat and any basin unit or wall opposite so there is sufficient space to provide for even the
tallest user’s knees.
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See how in these diagrams the use of a space saving cistern instead of a standard toilet,
allows for far more room in this small space.
Also, the use of a rectangular sink bowl instead of a round one, saves space.
With wall mounted taps this line becomes even slimmer. There is now space for a shower or
a piece of furniture.
Also, the use of a sliding door into a cavity wall saves the space used up by a swinging door.
This new available space can be used for a decorative bench, shelves for storage or the
visual space for a beautiful, unexpected piece of art.
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BEDROOM
The bedroom is inevitably a room that takes the overflow from other parts of the house, so
you will need to include as much storage as you can to accommodate everything you use
daily.
BED
Firstly, work out the position of the bed; assuming it’s a double bed. Both sides should be
accessible (so don’t push the bed against a wall unless the room is tiny).
If the ceiling slopes, check there’s enough headroom at either side of the bed. Also ensure
that the bedroom door doesn’t hit the bed, and that you can open wardrobe doors or
drawers easily.
If space is tight, avoid a high bed with footboards or posts; a low, minimally furnished bed
makes a room feel bigger. If you are short of space and storage, pick a bed with drawers
underneath for extra storage to free up floor space in the room.
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BEDSIDE TABLES
Bedside tables are all about creating a balanced look and should always come in pairs – they
needn’t match exactly, but they should be similar in size.
If you think you only have room for one bedside table, try sliding the bed across slightly and
fitting in two mini tables or table-height shelves instead so that you don’t unbalance the
look of the bedroom.
CHEST OF DRAWERS
If the bedroom is large, think about buying matching chests of drawers to sit either side of
the bed in place of bedside tables.
This option will give you plenty of storage for lamps, books, and clothes that don’t need
hanging.
If there’s only room for a single chest of drawers, site it centrally on an empty wall and put
a mirror above it to make a focal point.
It can also double up as a dressing table, but without a chair.
If it has to share a wall with a wardrobe, buy one that matches the depth and style of the
wardrobe for a streamlined feel. Or, for a sleek look, place it within a run of fitted wardrobes.
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DRESSING TABLES
If the bedroom is big enough to comfortably hold all essential furniture you require, and you
still have plenty of floor space, a dressing table is a real luxury item to include.
Ideally, it should be placed where the natural daylight is good – in a bay window (with a
stand-alone mirror) or at right angles to a flat window.
Ensure that there is room to comfortably sit in a chair at the dressing table, and sufficient
space for a partner to move around it.
WARDROBES
Freestanding wardrobes, whether in matching pairs or not, will sit naturally in alcoves, often
opposite the bed.
If you have one large wardrobe, site it centrally on a straight wall for a balanced look. Fitted
wardrobes are ideal if your room has awkward angles, such as sloping ceilings or an unused
chimney breast.
A wardrobe placed against a window will block out light, but if you have to site it there for
reasons of space, pick it in a light material or with a mirrored front to enhance the light in
the room.
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STORAGE
Storage can be a thing of beauty and pleasure.
Successful planning of a tight storage space is a challenging space-planning exercise.
Excellent storage allows for more decorative beauty in the rest of the house.
There are many solutions for creating efficient storage in small spaces, for example, under
a stairwell.
Storage companies have a range of standard cupboard, shelving and other options available,
but customised designs may be necessary for an awkward space.
CLOSET PLANS
When redesigning storage, take a space audit and measure the existing space in a closet.
Review the types of objects that need to be stored, such as dresses, suits, shirts or shoes.
In your plan, see if you can adjust the types of shelving and other storage fixtures to suit
the items that require storage.
Then see how you can tailor the design of the interior to fit the objects required plus at
least 30%. Use lineal measurements as a guide to how many items you can fit of a given
dimension. The shape of the area to store shoes, books or shirts will vary.
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See how you can arrange these. Don’t forget to use the full depth of the closet. You may
arrange layers of shelves from front to back, or hanging space from front to back.
Coming up with brilliant closet and exposed storage solutions is a great lateral thinking
exercise.
Elevation A: Shoes, folded objects, boxes, hats and folded clothing, drawers below
Elevation B: Hanging storage, drawers below, shoes, objects, boxes, hats and folded
clothing
Elevation C: Some hanging, drawers, books, and boxes
Elevation D: Drawers, small objects and books
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HALLWAY
A hallway is usually a long, narrow area, with little room for furniture. It has to make a good
first impression.
However, there are still ways in which you can improve the space immeasurably, both
decoratively and functionally, and avoid ways of getting the layout wrong.
COAT RACK OR STAND
A wall-hung coat rack is the best choice for a small hallway, as it takes up no floor space.
Hang it on a wall with space either side so bulky coats won’t be in the way.
Think about how to conceal the rack and its contents – in a recessed space with a sliding
panel or door in front, perhaps, or in an under-stairs cupboard – or buy a modern design in
contemporary materials so that it looks as attractive as possible. A coat stand looks good in
a hallway, but takes up floor place, so its best placed in a corner of a larger hall.
CONSOLE TABLE
If the hallway is long and narrow, you may only have one place for a console table – usually
up against a left or right-hand wall by the front door. If the hallway is too narrow for a table,
hang a shelf at tabletop height on sturdy brackets in the same position.
If the hallway is wide, consider where the table might be best positioned from a decorative
point of view. If you site it against a wall by the front door, position it centrally for balance;
if it will stand opposite the front door, position it so it’s the first thing you see as you come
indoors.
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MIRROR
If there is room for a console table, hang a mirror centrally above it for a practical and
decorative look.
A wide mirror that matches the length of the console table will give a balanced look and
make the hall seem longer.
If the hallway is too small for a table, place a long floor to ceiling mirror adjacent to the front
door (assuming the door has a glazed panel) to reflect natural light and make the space
seem wider. Or improve a small hall by hanging a large mirror opposite the front door.
SEATING
If you have room near the front door, use the space for a bench or seat so that you can sit
down to take off outdoor shoes.
Or look for a bench with a lift-up lid so that it can provide more useful storage space for
shoes and boots.
SHOE STORAGE
If you have a wall-hung coat rack, the natural place for shoe storage is beneath it (ideally
not on show). Or store shoes in lidded baskets beneath the console table or in any deep
drawers or shelves that the unit has.
Narrow shoe storage units with hinged drawers that tip out are also available, and you can
use the top of the unit as a console table-like surface.
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HOME OFFICE
A home office will invariably be a small room – or perhaps even a corner of a large room –
so it’s important to consider the layout of the office thoroughly before you start to purchase
furniture, storage units and accessories. You should also make a careful note of the room’s
measurements at this stage so that the furniture you buy will fit the proportions of the space
you have available.
DESK
The desk you choose should be in proportion to the size of the room and placed correctly so
that it is comfortable to work at. If you use a computer, don’t sit at the desk with your back
to a window or the screen will be almost invisible. Similarly, don’t sit facing a window unless
you are prepared to keep the blinds closed. Ideally, position the desk adjacent to, or pulled
back from, the window and angle your computer screen away from the light.
Also allow enough space for an office chair to be pulled back from it. The desk needs to be
conveniently placed for the wiring too. Power points can be fixed into the floor instead of the
wall if the desk will sit centrally, but make sure you work this into your rewiring plan.
CHAIR
Choose an office chair that doesn’t dominate the room or make it impossible or uncomfortable
to sit at the desk. Allow at least a 1250mm (4ft) gap from the edge of the desk so the chair
won’t bump against a wall or other furniture when you push back to stand up. If the room
doubles as a living space, you might want to incorporate the chair into the existing seating
area – if so, make sure you don’t have to lift the chair up and over other furniture whenever
you want to use it.
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FILING CABINET
The most convenient place to site a filing cabinet is within (or beneath) the desk so that
you don’t need to get out of your seat to open a drawer. If a set of desk drawers isn’t large
enough for your files, consider the amount of floor space you have: tall, thin filing cabinets
are ideal for rooms that have little space for anything else.
If you have more room, lower, wider units set behind, or adjacent to the desk are a good
solution and will provide you with another work surface on which to store extras such as
in-trays.
NOTICEBOARD
A noticeboard is a must-have for a home office: it can be used to display paperwork and
notes such as reminders, timetables and calendars, bills, lists and other relevant information.
Position the noticeboard where you can easily see and reach it – to one side of your desk, for
example. If you find it hard to keep it looking tidy, use an area of wall that is not immediately
visible upon entering the room.
WALL-MOUNTED STORAGE
To be useful, wall-mounted cupboards and shelves should be just a little deeper than a file.
Search for wide, streamlined cupboards with sliding doors if you don’t have enough space
for the door to open out, and hang the cupboards and shelves low enough for you to easily
see inside or reach items.
Also, make sure they don’t block natural light. If you have an alcove, use it for shelving; if
you have no other space, fix a high shelf at picture rail height to store files and items that
you rarely need.
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LAUNDRY ROOM
A laundry room is not usually a large space – more commonly it will be just big enough.
Planning the layout down to the last detail is therefore a must to ensure that you can fit in all
equipment you need, that everything is easily accessible, and that the room functions well.
Also include several storage solutions and a place to store the ironing board if required. If
the house is small and you can’t dedicate an entire room to the laundry, you could look into
having hidden cupboards in a hallway that conceal a laundry area.
SHELVES OR CUPBOARDS
Any spare wall space within a laundry room can be filled with shelves or, for a neater look,
wall-hung cupboards.
If the room is doubling up as a downstairs cloakroom, fix shelves or a cupboard above the
toilet and use the space above the handbasin to incorporate a cupboard with a mirrored
front.
SINK
If you can place the sink near your washing machine, you will find it more practical. Anything
left to soak can be neatly transferred to rinse and spin in the washing machine without water
dripping over the floor.
Try to leave space either side, or to one side of the sink for a draining board, and space
below to hold washing powders and liquids.
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TUMBLE DRYER
If you have enough floor space, a tumble dryer should sit next to the washing machine so
you can transfer a load of washing easily. If there isn’t enough room, put the tumble dryer
on top of the washing machine (don’t try it the other way round, because the washing
machine will be too heavy). Most dryers don’t need venting, but if they require it, consider
how best to work this into your layout so that it is placed on an outside wall.
WASHING MACHINE
A washing machine, or washer dryer, and a sink will be the two most important elements in
the room, so position them first. They don’t need to be next to each other, but it will cut your
plumbing bills if the water supply and drainage for the two are nearby, preferably along the
same wall. Check there is enough room to kneel in front of a front-loading washing machine
and that opening the door to the room will not impede access to the drum.
WASHING RACK
Wall or ceiling hung washing racks are useful because they take up no floor space. Position
them near a source of ventilation such as a window, or above a sink or draining board so
clothes can drip-dry. Also place them high enough so that you can hang long items without
touching the floor or another surface. Otherwise, buy drying racks that will fold flat against
a wall when not in use.
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OUTSIDE SPACE
If you have an undeveloped outdoor space, you really have a blank canvas on which to plan
a layout.
However, there are several things to consider that will affect your plans, such as how to gain
privacy if you are overlooked, where the sun falls and when, and even how well you can hide
some components of this area.
COOKING AREA
The most convenient place for an outdoor cooking area is near the house.
If you are planning a fully functioning outdoor kitchen, it will also be easier to install the
electrics and/or gas if the house is nearby.
Choose a shady spot for your cooking area, or create one using a pergola or clever planting,
but be careful not to create a fire hazard.
DINING AREA
Where you position your outdoor dining furniture depends on where your patio or decking
area is, where you have dappled shade and how close to the house you want to dine.
When calculating what size of table to buy, allow an extra metre (3ft) all around it for the
seats to be comfortably pulled in and out.
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PATIO OR DECKED AREA
Think about how much of the patio or deck you want in the sun, in dappled shade, or in full
shade. If you want to combine space for sunbathing, dining, and a kids’ play area, you might
want to position part of it in full sun for lounging and part in dappled shade for dining and
playing. If you’ll only be using this space for dining, it makes sense to site it right outside
the back door. Ideally, this area should be screened off from the neighbours’ view. You may
have existing features, such as a wall or trees that you can take advantage of, or create a
screen using trellis, pergolas or planting.
PLANTING
Plants can be used as screening for privacy, to hide ugly views or features, for shade, or
simply as decoration. Plant tall trees around your boundaries if you need to screen your
outdoor space, or train climbers over a pergola or a trellis to hide a seating area. Hide an
unpleasant view with tall, bushy planting or climbers trained over trellis.
STORAGE
Tuck a shed or storage unit out of sight at the end or side of the garden, or hide it with clever
planting such as climbers or tall, bushy plants. If your space is very small, a bench with a
lift-up lid and storage underneath is a good option. Any small units can sit against a wall of
the house so they aren’t visible from indoors.
WATER SUPPLY
Fix a tap to the back wall of the house next to a boundary wall (not centrally, where it will
take up space), with a stashable hose attached to the wall next to the wall. If there are
children, it pays to also have a hot tap fitted so you can fill a paddling pool easily. If you
have an outdoor shower, place it in a sunny spot where the shower area will dry out quickly.
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FLOOR PLANS
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FLOOR PLANS
When it comes time to developing your first floor plan, it can become a little overwhelming
so before you start, let’s go over the basic steps.
READING THE PLAN
The floor plan takes us on a journey above a space.
The purpose of the floor plan is to show the organisation and layout of the spaces within the
house, the position of the doors, windows and stairs as well as the thickness of the walls.
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A plan is like taking a horizontal cut through a building. The general height for this is usually
1200mm (4ft). So imagine that you are slicing through the house at 1200mm above the
floor level.
You then draw everything you see below ceiling height, and anything noteworthy, that is
above 1200m, is represented by a dashed line.
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When looking at a floor plan, remember that you’re looking at just one view of the house
and you’ll need to look at other views to really understand all of the house’s features.
Plans should have each room labeled, so you know where each functional area is in
relationship to another room.
This will also help you see how you can get from room to room.
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TITLE BLOCKS
Every plan should include a title block that indicates what the project is and what floor the
plan is of.
When setting up as a designer, one of the first tasks you must take on is to have a professional
name for your company.
This can be your own name, or a name such as ‘Interior Associates’. Always check that
there is no other registered business with the same name. We will go into further detail
about this in the later stages of the course, however here we are more concerned with the
presentation of how your drawings will look. They need, as always, to reflect a professional
attitude.
All drawings must carry a title block that typically runs down the right side or the bottom of
the sheet of paper. It is important to use the same title block for each sheet of paper.
Typically the title block will contain the name of the job and its location, sheet title, the
scale, the name of the client, the names and addresses of consulting engineers, name or
initials of drafters and checkers, revision blocks and a drawing number.
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SCALE
Scale drawings allow us to accurately represent sites, spaces, buildings and details to a
smaller or more practical size than the original.
In the real world, one meter is equal to one meter. A drawing at a scale of 1:10 means that
the object is 10 times smaller than in real life scale 1:1. You could also say, 1 unit in the
drawing is equal to 10 units in real life.
As the numbers in the scale get bigger, i.e. 1:50 – 1:200, the elements in the drawing
actually get smaller. This is because in a drawing at 1:50 there is 1 unit for every 50 unit in
real life. A drawing of 1:200 is representing 200 units for every one unit – and therefore is
showing the elements smaller than the 1:50 drawing.
It is worth noting that scale drawings represent the same units. So, if a drawing is at 1:50
in cm, 1cm in the drawing will be equal to 50cm in real life. Similarly, if a drawing is in mm,
at 1:200 – one mm unit in the drawing will represent 200mm in real life.
The scales most commonly used are:
1:20 for joinery (large enough to show most detail)
1:50 for plans and elevations
1:100 for a complete house plan
You will see that the larger the number gets, the smaller the scale. This is so the plan of
an entire building can be reduced in size and shown on a single sheet of paper.
Conversion table Metric – Imperial:
1:20 – say 1 to 20 is approx. 1:24 or ½ inch – 1ft Imperial
1:50 – say 1 to 50 is approx. 1:48 or ¼ inch – 1ft Imperial
1:100 – say 1 to 100 is approx. 1:96 or 1/8 inch – 1ft Imperial
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SCALE BAR
A linear scale, also called a bar scale, scale bar, graphic scale, is a means of visually showing
the scale of a map, engineering drawing, or architectural drawing.
This bar is used to show the scale on a drawing and is particularly useful if the drawings are
photocopied or reduced.
On large interior design and architectural or engineering drawings, the linear scale
can be very simple; a line marked at intervals to show the distance on the drawing
which the distance on the scale represents. We can use a pair of dividers (or, less
precisely, two fingers) to measure a distance by comparing it to the linear scale.
Scale bars are used primarily in the US and Australia, but less so in Europe.
If this looks a bit daunting, practice and you will realise it’s not that different from every
other ruler when you become familiar with it. Choose your scale based on which size will be
easy to read and also which size will fit on manageable-sized paper.
Later, when you develop more detailed drawings, you will probably need to work in a larger
format. This is now an exercise in efficiency to aid your thinking.
Don’t make the drawing too big or unwieldy. It may interfere with your initial creative
planning.
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DRAFTING
Hand drafting is considered the foundation of interior design theory, and it is important to
learn this technique before you learn a computer-aided design (CAD) software.
There are three categories of drawings crucial to interior designers:
Process drawings (rough images and preliminary sketches)
Construction drawings (drafted drawings, floor plans, elevations)
Presentation drawings (formal sketches, three-dimensional views)
Within the category of hand-drafted drawings, there are two distinct types:
Technical sketches
Mechanical drafting
An interior designer must have the ability to quickly create technical sketches during the
preliminary and initial design phases to convey design ideas to others.
A mechanical draft is the next step that moves a design idea from the development phase
to implementation phase.
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It is a much more advanced and refined drawing style that takes the design project to the
next level. Mechanical drawings are created only after a final design is agreed upon.
DRAFTING TOOLS
While the basic pencil is required to create the actual drawing, interior designers need a
number of other specialised drafting tools to help bring their designs to life.
COMPASS
A compass is a common drafting tool used to draw circles and arcs. The compass is a
V-shaped device comprised of two rigid legs, one with a sharp end tip and the other that
accommodates a pencil. The pointed tip is used to pivot on the drawing surface as the pencil
leg marks a radius or arc. Adjust the radius by changing the angle of the hinge.
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RULERS
Interior designers often need to draw precise parallel lines. That can be a difficult task
without a parallel ruler. This ruler has two straight blades attached at the ends by hinged
arms, which is used to create parallel lines of varying distances from one another.
A straight edge ruler is just as the name implies. It is employed to draw straight horizontal
lines. The straight blade attaches to the edge of the drafting board or table and can be
moved up and down the board. The blade locks into position to create perfectly straight lines
on flat or angled work surfaces.
To measure floor plans you will need a scale ruler, and there are several types of scale rulers
on the market.
One of the most popular, is the Verulam Blundell Harling Ruler.
As designers, we will use the architect’s scale ruler, which will have the following scales for
those using the metric measuring system: 1:100, 1:125, 1:50, 1:75, 1:20, 1:25.
T-SQUARE
A T-square is a necessity to interior designers. It consists of a longer blade and a shorter
strip, known as the head. The blade is attached at a right angle to the head. They come in
various sizes and can be used to draw straight lines and right angles.
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TEMPLATES
You can use furniture templates for your planning. These are the same or similar to most
standard pieces and can be purchased in drafting or art supply stores.
Unless you are working with an existing odd-shaped piece of furniture, templates will enable
you to work quickly and accurately.
DRAFTING BOARDS AND TABLES
When doing interior design drafting, it is necessary to have a proper work surface. A
portable drafting board has a smooth, level surface to accommodate large sheets of paper
for mechanical drawings. The sheets are secured to the surface to prevent shifting during
work.
This type of board can be used on most tables or countertops and is less expensive than
a large drafting table. Drafting tables typically have an adjustable top or legs to create an
angled drawing surface. Many also feature a built-in straight edge.
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LETTERING
Good lettering is perhaps one of the most important details on a drawing, because it ensures
that a manually drawn plan looks professional.
Notes and annotation must be clear, legible and consistent, and again this is only something
that can be obtained through time, effort and dedication, and as always, practice, practice,
practice!
When commencing work on a drawing, we work out the best scale to use on the size of
paper. Normally a house plan drawn to a scale of 1:50 will fit comfortably on an A3 sheet of
paper, and after that has been established, it’s important to use the correct lettering size.
We are not going to go into the detailed history of fonts and lettering styles here, but a brief
overview is useful to understand where good quality lettering evolved from and why. English
font is derived from Roman lettering, which can still be seen on Roman monuments and
buildings. The most common example of this is Times New Roman as seen below:
Some of the inscriptions on ancient Roman temples are perfect examples of lettering, in
form and spacing, and have stood the test of time.
When starting to annotate a drawing, you must decide on the style you want to use.
One of the most popular styles is seen above, and is called City Blueprint. It’s worth studying
this particular font, and practicing it, as it’s one of the most used and easily recognised
forms of lettering used on drawings.
Once mastered it looks neat, and is easy to reproduce. Another useful font is Stylus BT. It’s
a clear and legible font, which can easily be reproduced by hand.
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Don’t be afraid to use horizontal guidelines to ensure uniformity and consistency of size.
Even though it might seem tedious to begin with, it’s well worth spending the time to
practice and develop your own distinctive lettering style.
It’s best to print your annotation in CAPITALS, as this is generally much easier to read on a
drawing.
To practice lettering, the best tested and tried way is to write the alphabet over and
over, to become familiar with the different letters and how they are formed. You will
develop your own style, and become comfortable and confident with your lettering.
Remember, that your drawings will be read by clients, contractors and other
professionals, so good lettering is important to communicate your ideas.
Practice your lettering and loosen up your style.
Give curved lines a balloon-like fullness and pay attention to the amount of space between
letters.
Good lettering, like a well-produced drawing, also reflects on both your attitude and ability.
The fonts illustrated here, should only serve as a guideline until you become confident with
your manual lettering.
When writing notes on a drawing, avoid standard formats such as ‘I will paint the wall blue’.
Instead, say ‘Wall to be painted 30BB 27/236 Blue. High sheen finish, apply 2 coats’.
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LINE WORK
Good quality line work is the keystone of quality drafting, and it’s something you should
practice whenever you get the chance.
We use different lines for different purposes, and it’s important to be aware of the different
meanings and representations, which are generally standard in the industry.
Line weight and line quality are extremely important to a successful set of design drawings.
Usually a set of design drawings will go to many different people including the client, other
designers or architects, manufacturers, builders, and others within the profession.
The lines used for design drawings must be crisp and dark so that they are easy to reproduce
and clear copies can be made from them.
The line weight is the light or darkness and width of a line. Manual pencil drafting, drafting
in ink, and computer-aided drawing documents must have a variety of line weights. Varied
drawing line weights, typically three, should be used on every drawing. These include light,
medium, and bold lines.
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Aside from these lines used to illustrate a drawing, there are also guidelines and border
lines.
Guidelines are used for page layout and borderlines are used for framing the page.
These documents must also have consistent line quality, which is the uniformity of lines
throughout a drawing.
These two elements give a sense of professionalism to the documents, provide visual
interest, create a clear and easy to read document, and demonstrate the drafting skills and
abilities of the designer.
Pencil lines should be solid, uniform in width, and consistent in darkness throughout their
length, if a line in a drawing is changed, make sure to erase it cleanly and recreate the line
in the appropriate line weight and quality.
Being consistent also applies to pen and ink drawings and CAD drawings.
A pen and ink drawing is usually created first with very light guidelines. When using ink
technical or drafting pens, typically the light, medium and dark weights are create in
proportion to one another.
For example, if light is a width of .05, then medium is .1 and dark is .2.
The actual width of each line type should also be related to the size and scale of the drawing.
The best way to create consistent line weights and line quality is to keep your pencil or pen
perpendicular to the drawing surface and drawing media.
This keeps the width of the line consistent.
Also keep a constant pressure as you draw a line type from its start to finish.
This takes practice and can be mastered if you focus on creating the line consistently and
do not try and rush a drafted document.
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LINE WEIGHTS
Guidelines or Construction Lines (4H to 6H pencil lead in a .3mm mechanical pencil)
The initial lines that you will draw on your paper are guidelines or what some refer to as
construction lines. These lines are temporary and used to lay out the page, create the initial
shapes, and provide a guide for lettering heights. The line weight for guidelines is to be very
light as they should be almost invisible on the finished drawing. They must be dark enough
for you to see, light enough to erase lines easily, and barely visible when copies or other
form of reproductions are made from the drawing.
Bold Lines (soft B or 2B pencil lead in a .5mm or .7mm mechanical pencil)
The primary objects in a drawing should be created using a bold line. Bold lines are very
dark and have a thick width. These are created with a .5mm or .7mm mechanical pencil
and a soft B to 2B pencil lead. Walls in plan view and the outline around the perimeter of an
elevation or 3D object are examples where bold lines should be used.
Medium Lines (HB pencil lead in a .5mm mechanical pencil)
Secondary objects such as doors, furnishings, counters, and cabinets should be drawn in a
medium line weight. In elevation and 3D views, the perimeter of an object may be drawn in
a bold line weight however, the information inside the object should be drawn in a medium
weight. Medium line weights are best created using a .5mm width pencil with a HB pencil
lead.
Light Lines (H to 2H pencil lead in a .3mm or .5mm)
Action lines, information lines, and fill patterns should be drawn with light lines. Action
lines show potential movement of an object, and include door swings in plan view and
hinge direction in elevation view. Information lines convey information about a drawing and
include dimension lines, centre lines, leader lines, section lines, and so on.
Border Lines (2B to 4B pencil lead in a .7mm or .9mm pencil)
Border lines are used to create a margin on the drawing sheet and to create the lines around
the title block. Border lines should be dark and about twice as thick as bold lines. A .7mm
or .9mm pencil with a 2B to 4B lead works well for creating border lines. Keep in mind that
the softer the lead (B, 2B, etc.,) the easier it is to smudge the line once it is drawn.
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LINE TYPES
Along with line weights, there are standards for different types of lines. Each has a definite
meaning and is recognised as a typical symbol or object within the building trades industry.
Listed below are some of the standard line types that are typically used in design drawings.
Sold Line
Solid lines are used to indicate visible objects that can be seen in plan, elevation or 3D
views. Solid lines are also used for leader lines or dimension lines.
Dashed Line
Hidden objects or edges are drawn with short dashed lines. These are used to show hidden
parts of an object or objects below or behind another object. Dashed lines are also used to
indicate shelving or cabinets above a counter. These lines should be in contact at corners
and when perpendicular to another line.
Movement, Ghost or Phantom Line
These lines are a series of dashes and are used to show movement or imply direction.
These typically are used instead of a dashed line to show an alternative position of an object
that can be moved. One object would be drawn with a solid line, and its alternate position
would be dashed or a phantom line. This can include bi-swing doors, the space needed for
drawer and cabinet door openings, sliding door opening direction, hinge points for doors and
windows in elevation views etc.
Leader Line
Leader lines are used to connect notes or references to objects or lines in a drawing. Leader
lines start as a solid line and end in an arrow. Leader lines may be drawn at an angle or
curved.
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Break Lines
Break lines are used when the extends of a drawing cannot fit on the size of paper being
used for the drawing. It can also be used when you only need to illustrate a portion of a
design or partial view.
Centre Line
Centre lines are used to indicate the centre of a plan, object, circle, are or any symmetrical
object. Use a series of very long and short dashes to create a centre line. If two centre lines
intersect, use short dashes at the intersection.
Section Line
The section line is used to show a cutaway view of a floor plan. A section cutting all the way
through a floor plan is referred to as a full section. The direction of the arrows shows the
direction of the section view. The symbols on the end of the section line indicate the drawing
number on top and the page number the section will be located on the bottom.
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DIMENSIONS
Dimensions on a drawing provide essential information as to the length, width, height and
depth of any object shown. It is important to establish not only the size of a given object,
but also to provide an indication of the scale and proportion of a space or detail within a
space.
As with lettering, dimensions need to follow the same rule, and must be clear, legible and
above accurate.
Dimensions, along with annotation and titles, form the main body of written information
on a drawing to complement the graphic portion as drawn. Dimensions must be carefully
considered as part of a drawing, and should not cross over the line of a structure.
They also need to be set out in a clear and methodical format, with due diligence and
respect to the overall scale of the drawing itself.
In general, the guidelines state that dimensions should be read across the drawing sheet, left
to right. Dimensions are definite and absolute measurements from one point to another.
Dimensions should remain separate from the structural lines of the objects you have drawn
to avoid confusion, and drawn in a different line thickness to differentiate them to the reader.
When imperial measurements are used, fractions should be drawn with a diagonal line for
greater clarity e.g. ¼.
On metric drawings, it is normal to work in millimetres to a tolerance of 0.00. For example,
a wall might be 2755.35mm. Any more digits will only be confusing so keep to the standard
representation, and if possible, round off to the nearest digit. Internal dimensions should
run from the face of the inside wall to the opposite face of the inside wall, externally from
the outside wall face to outside wall face.
Notes and dimensions must be co-ordinated so that one will not obscure or interfere with
the other on your drawing and cause unnecessary clutter and confusion. Legibility is the
main concern here, along with accuracy.
Dimension lines can be defined by a variety of symbols, arrows, diagonal slashes or dots.
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If using the diagonal slash, ensure that the slash falls with the line of the numbers.
The endpoint, be it an arrow, slash or dot should be clear and distinct to identify the
termination point. They are normally shown in a heavier line.
Dimension lines should run past the end mark as a matter of course. This is standard
drawing practice as shown above.
To avoid needless dimensions or crowding, door and window sizes are often eliminated by
the use of a scheduling system (Door & Window Schedule). A contractor can then apply the
correct size to any given location.
The clarity and neatness of a drawing can be improved if dimension lines do not cross. In
some instances crossed lines cannot be prevented, but placement should be made with the
greatest care possible to avoid any confusion or clutter.
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SYMBOLS
Every floor plan will have a set of symbols with each one drawn to the same scale as the
rest of the plan.
Industry standards have been developed to provide a universal language of graphic symbols
and written forms for different design companies and building professions.
We recommend that you do your own additional research to discover what the industry
standards are in your country.
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Section Symbols
Section symbols are used to indicate where sections are cut.
The section mark consists of a circle, an arrow that indicates the view direction of sight
which is filled solid black, and two numbers.
The upper number tells the section number on the sheet, and the lower number indicates
the sheet number where the section is drawn.
Generally a section call-out is composed of two same section marks, one on each end of the
cutting plane line.
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Elevation Symbols
Elevation marks are used to indicate which direction and from which point on the floor plan
is drawn.
The elevation mark consists of a circle, an arrow that indicates the direction of sight, and
two numbers.
The upper number tells the elevation number on the sheet, and the lower number indicates
the sheet where the elevation is drawn.
Elevation marks can be placed at each spot for different elevation views.
Or multiple elevation symbols may be used for the elevation views that are drawn from one
middle spot of the space.
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DEVELOPING A
BASIC FLOOR
PLAN
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DEVELOPING A BASIC FLOOR PLAN
In Module 11 you will learn how to produce complete documentation for your clients, your
suppliers and your trade contractors.
Now you will learn how to develop working diagrammatic drawings which will enable you to
arrive at the plan that you will later represent in a completed document.
Start to use scale drawings to think things through. You may be visual and have a terrific
imagination; still, the mind distorts the true dimensions of available space.
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When you set things out on paper with the correct dimensions, at least two very important
things start to happen:
¦ You see what you thought you could do but you find it is not feasible.
¦ You see new possibilities that you would never have imagined had you not set the
true situation out in front of yourself.
Sometimes you think you have more space than you actually do. Luckily, other times you
may find you actually do have more space than you thought.
Empty rooms tend to look smaller than they are. This is a trick played on us by our vision,
which requires some objects to be viewed in relation to each other for our brain to send us
a perceptive message.
So, an empty space is hard to figure out because there isn’t enough information.
Placing a couple of chairs or a table in the space helps to better evaluate not only the
perceived space, but also the actual area from the standpoint of human proportion.
The other way to do this is to measure the space and draw it up.
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MEASURING A ROOM
Do not start designing without an analysis of your space and an accurate floor plan. A floor
plan is the easiest way to get a handle on how much space you have, and what that space’s
strong and weak points are. To create an accurate floor plan, start by measuring a room.
1. Using a tape measure, measure the baseboard along the length of one wall,
from one corner of the room to another.
Record this measurement on your sketch floor plan and in your notebook. It is a great
idea to start off with a rough plan that is not perfect (like above), then once finished
you can develop a clear and concise plan.
2. Measure the remaining walls the same way you measured the first.
Most rooms have four walls, but if you’re measuring an L-shaped room, you have
more to measure. Include every wall in your sketch, especially if you plan to give one
part of the room a different material or wall covering.
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3. Measure the room’s doorways and other entries.
Note whether the door opens into or out of the room and indicate the direction (with
an arc) on your rough plan. Also measure the distances of all openings — doors and
open archways — from the ends of the walls so that you can accurately locate these
openings on your final plan.
4. Determine the size of the windows.
Include the window frame from outside edge to outside edge. Record the measurements
for any mouldings around the window separately. Gauge the distance from the floor to
the bottom of the window frame, from the ceiling to the top of the window moulding,
and from the window (on each side) to the corner of the wall (or next window or
opening).
5. Measure all architectural features, including fireplaces, brackets, shelves,
and any other built-in features.
Measure surrounding space and outside or overall dimensions of these items, and
then locate each on your plan.
6. Measure the walls from floor to ceiling to get the ceiling height.
7. Measure where the electrical outlets, switches, and other controls are
located.
Note where heat and air conditioning ducts, radiators, chases (coverings for electric
wires and plumbing pipes), and exposed pipes are located.
After you finish measuring, you’re ready to draw your floor plan to scale!
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FLOOR PLAN CHECK LIST
1. Border and title block.
2. Title and scale of the drawing in the title block.
3. Drawing number in the title block.
4. North arrow in the upper left corner of the drawing sheet.
5. Exterior walls and interior walls with different thicknesses.
6. Outline of patio and porches if applicable.
7. Windows with proper window symbols for operations. (I.E. are they sliding windows?)
8. Doors with the proper door symbols for oporations. (I.E. are they single or double?)
9. Wall openings, arches, and siffits with dotted/hidden lines.
10. Window and door numbers.
11. Room/area labels.
12. Stairs with directional arrows for up or down.
13. Indicate chimneys if applicable.
14. Wheelchair access circles if applicable.
15. All kitchen fixtures and appliances including sinks, counters, cabinets etc.
16. All bathroom fixtures including sinks, bath tubs, showers, toilet etc.
17. Other appliances including clothes dryer, washer, hot wat tank etc.
18. Any built-in interior features.
19. Dimensions.
20. Notations.
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In addition to the floor plan there are other types of scale drawings. These are site plans,
elevations, cross sections, isometric and axonometric drawings.
ELEVATIONS
House elevation drawings are created after you have created your floor
plan. Elevations are always two-dimensional drawings (2D).
Once you have completed drawing your detailed floor plans, you’ll still need to create a few
more construction drawings. In addition to the floor plans, you will need to provide your
builder and local planning department with elevations and cross-sectional drawings.
To consider the correct heights of the furniture and other objects in your space you also
need to measure, and record the ceiling height. You can then plot the horizontal length and
vertical height of the walls.
Start with a rectangular room that isn’t too complicated. You will have one measurement for
the walls running east/west and another for the walls running north/south. Draw these on
another piece of A4 graph paper or plain paper. Use the same scale that you used to draw
the floor plan.
Think of them as separate pieces of a dolls house you can construct. Imagine that the
elevations can stand at the edges of the floor plan and make a three-dimensional box.
Mark the locations of doors and windows on the elevations. These should match where you
have noted them on the floor plan. Make several photocopies of each wall.
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SECTION PLANS
With interior design drawings, it is advisable to have an awareness of structures, and to
always consult with a qualified engineer prior to any proposed works that will entail taking
down or putting up walls.
It was the Renaissance Artist Albrecht Durer (1471-1528) who conceived the idea of ‘slicing’
through a building to reveal its internal workings in graphic format. He was the first person
to prepare a section drawing along with a plan and elevation for a Military project in 1527,
thus setting the trend for a ‘set’ of drawings to be used on design and construction projects.
The section is perhaps the most technical of the orthographic projections, because it
essentially slices through a building at a given point, and allows us to peer inside the interior
space, to see an elevation of a wall and its features, along with any roofing or ceiling details
we wish to highlight. It can cut through several levels of a building.
A section looks into a building from a vertical standpoint, as a plan does on the horizontal.
The section is perhaps the most difficult drawing for the lay person to understand, and it is
a well-trained draughtsperson who can establish where they wish to take their section from
a plan layout to produce a clear and detailed drawing.
Generally, a section drawing is a means of communicating information between consultants
or contractors, to highlight a particularly tricky detail.
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ASSIGNMENT FOUR
You are about to take a brief and redesign the interior of a house built in the 1950s.
THE BRIEF
The home has a central hallway, a stairway to the upper level, arches that lead to the dining
room on the west wall, and the living room on the east wall. Behind the dining room and to
the north is the kitchen and laundry room. Behind the living room in the same direction is
the study. There is an old toilet under the stairs.
Your client has a ten year old girl and a twelve year old boy and wants to modernise
the house. She loves to cook but doesn’t want to feel isolated in the kitchen. She rarely
entertains in a formal setting and she prefers family oriented occasions which would include
extended family (relatives and friends) so you will need a dining area.
The bedrooms are upstairs, however she only wants to renovate the entire ground floor
of her home. Assume a large budget as it is more fun that way.
Below is what the existing floor plan looks like.
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THE TASK
You are to develop a layout for the ground floor which has less emphasis on formal dining,
a more functional kitchen and increased space for casual entertaining and family activities.
This would suggest an open plan kitchen view either to the dining or living areas.
TIP: Look at the orientation of the home (the way it faces) to take advantage of the natural
light; and insert furniture (any style at this stage), to illustrate spatial planning.
The construction of the home is brick veneer with a timber frame, concrete stump
foundation and tiled roof.
Remember to think laterally and come up with any solution you think will please your client
and result in a successful design proposal.
Also ensure that the floor plan includes all dimensions, with each room clearly labeled, and
a title block.
Keep in mind that you will be using your newly designed plan in your future assignments.
CHANGES ALLOWED
¦ You can change the bathroom’s use and function, but keep in mind that the stairs
are angled, so the ceiling in the bathroom will be slanted and lower than
the rest of the house.
¦ The bathroom door opening can be modified or moved to the other wall (as long as
the overall size of the room doesn’t change).
¦ You can add/delete/change/increase the position and size of windows and doors
throughout the plan.
¦ You can change the rooms around and make the home open plan, but remember
if you knock down walls, you always need to seek the advice of a licensed builder or
engineer. So, mark this in your supporting description if you decide to knock
down walls.
CHANGES NOT ALLOWED
¦ The walls of the bathroom (under the stair landing) cannot be removed as they are
supporting the stair landing.
¦ The outside walls (perimeter), front door and stairs must remain where they are.
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THE PLAN
The floor plan is drawn using a scale of 1:50, so the dimensions and furniture are 50 times
smaller than in real life (1cm on your ruler is 50cm in real life; 2cm = 1m in real life).
To create your amended floor plan, you can purchase a scale ruler with a 1:50 scale, or use
a standard ruler and a graphic scale bar.
Below are two links that you can use to print out the plan on A4 or A3 paper:
Assignment 4 Floorplan PDF (A4)
Assignment 4 Floorplan PDF (A3)
When printing on A3 paper, in the page size/scale section select ‘custom scale’ and type in
‘100%’ to ensure it prints at the right size.
NOTES
Exterior wall thickness = 305mm (12 inches)
Interior wall thickness = 200mm (7.87 inches)
Ceiling height = 2400mm (9 feet)
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Once you are happy with the arrangement, you can create a final copy of the floor plan by
hand, and then scan it in or you can have a go at using one of the CAD programs listed on
the following pages. Remember to keep the west wall and stairs where they are, and make
sure to pencil in the room’s major areas before firmly committing to hard-to-erase dark
lines.
HOW DO I CREATE MY PLAN?
We suggest to start off with a few rough sketches on paper, before making things digital. You
can begin by drawing a few bubble diagrams to figure out where you will place each room.
After you have created a few rough sketches whilst jotting down any notes and ideas, draw
a clean outline of the space then photocopy the drawing a number of times, to help you
experiment until you find the best way to arrange objects in the space you are about to
design. You can also print out the floor plans on the previous page, and trace over them.
Don’t worry about the exact correct scale at this stage, rather focus on space planning and
the arrangement of furniture. You may like to cut out pieces of paper in the shape of the
furniture to arrange and rearrange them in the space.
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610 910 310 910 1820 910 1390 910 310 910 610
910 910 310 910 3020 910 310 910 910
610 910 910 310 910 610
610 910 310 910 4540 910 910
2825 910 1605
305 2895 200 2550 200 3145 305
9600 mm
305 2735 200 5555 305
305 2895 200 2550 200 3145 305
305 5395 200 2895 305
9100 mm
9600 mm
9100 mm
REF.
KITCHEN LAUNDRY
WC
STUDY
LIVING ROOM
DINING
ROOM
D
W
ENTRY
Notes:
Consultation with a Structural
Engineer will need to be
undertaken prior to
commencement of any work
Project Name:
IDI Module 4 Floorplan
Drawing:
Ground Floor
Client Name:
(Insert Name)
Client Address:
(Insert address)
Date:
(Insert Date)
Drawing Number:
001
Scale 1:50
Key:
Double Door
Single Door
Window
4125
1350
2375 90 90
780
Note on the paper the room’s directional orientation (north, south, east, and west) as the
quantity and quality of natural light affects a number of decisions.
Pay attention also to the inside width of the doors and other openings so that you know if
your sofa (or other large piece of furniture) can fit through the opening, up the stairs, or
around a turn in the hallway.
To aid you in the process of learning how to read floor plans and work with different scales,
you can watch the various videos we have put together on our YouTube channel.
If you would like to complete the assignment using software, you can refer to the following
pages for information regarding which one to use.
Your finished floor plan should look similar to the below plan which was created in SketchUp.
COPYRIGHT © ONLINE EDUCATION ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
SPACE PLANNING
97
SOFTWARE
Today, interior designers use Computer Aided Drafting (CAD) software to create technical
and mechanical drawings.
Some design and drafting work can be completed more quickly on CAD, however, you will
still need to use technical or mechanical drafting for design development.
An advantage of CAD is the speed of revisions to a document. Instead of re-drafting an
entire page alterations can be made quickly and easily and the page reprinted or plotted.
CAD drawings can be easily stored electronically and sent to other designers who can make
revisions or alterations.
At IDI we offer two Advanced Modules, one on SketchUp and one on AutoCAD.
SKETCHUP AUTOCAD
These Advanced Modules are like add-ons to your existing course and come with a
free 6-month extension. They also come with a guided tutor for each one.
If you are interested in learning these programs, please click on the ‘Adv Modules’ tab
within the Student Site.
The modules will provide steps on how to download the free student version of the software.
COPYRIGHT © ONLINE EDUCATION ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
SPACE PLANNING
98
Our latest Advanced Module on SketchUp includes over 30+ video tutorials on how to use
the software, as well as a separate video created just for Assignment 4.
If you click on the ‘Videos’ tab within Module 4 on the Student Site, you can view the video.
The remaining videos are included in the SketchUp Advanced Module only.
For your convenience, we have provided the following files for you to download and work
from.
SketchUp Floorplan with Title Block (JPEG)
SketchUp Floorplan with Title Block (PDF)
SketchUp Floorplan with Title Block – No Furniture (JPEG)
SketchUp Floorplan with Title Block – No Furniture (PDF)
SketchUp Floorplan – No Dimensions (JPEG)
SketchUp Floorplan – No Dimensions (PDF)
COPYRIGHT © ONLINE EDUCATION ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
SPACE PLANNING
99
FLOORPLANNER
Floorplanner is a free online program that allows you to easily create your floor plans.
The team at Floorplanner have put together a tutorial which you can view here.
Also note that if you create a free account on Floorplanner, it is very limited with what you
can do. This means that you may need to use another program (such as Photoshop or
InDesign) to create your title block.
You can use the JPEG files found on page 98 to import into Floorplanner and then trace over.
Or if you’re up for a challenge, you can create your plan from scratch!
If you are competent in using AutoCAD to re-create your plan for this
assignment, then please go ahead.
Below is an example of what you could create using AutoCAD:
COPYRIGHT © ONLINE EDUCATION ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
SPACE PLANNING
100
ARCHICAD
ArchiCAD brings BIM (Building Information Modelling) into common practice for the design
and realisation of buildings by enabling model-based work-flow integration through innovative
IT solutions. Click here for more information on the differences between CAD and BIM.
Students can sign up to a 1 year Educational Student License or a 30-day free trial with the
option of extending this to a 1 year License. Please go to myarchicad.com to register for
your ArchiCAD 1 Year Free Education License and follow the prompts to fill out the below
responses:
Type of School: Vocational or College
School address: International Office Address as indicated on the IDI website or simply
type ‘’Online’’
City: City where you are based
Faculty: Interior Design
Student ID Card Number: Student ID number located via the ‘’Profile’’ tab from within
your Student Site
Phone number: Your contact number
Is your school currently teaching ArchiCAD as part of the curriculum or in a course
offering: Yes
What is ArchiCAD’s status at your school: Elective
For tips and training you can watch the video tutorials on ArchiCAD’s YouTube.
OTHER SOFTWARE SUGGESTIONS
For more software suggestions, please visit the ‘Resources’ tab in the Community section
from within your student account.
You can also refer to our student Facebook group for more information and support on the
various software programs available.
Don’t forget that you can message your tutor or the support team at any time if you have
any questions. We know it can be daunting to tackle this on your own, but we’re here to
help!
Good luck! 🙂

Attachments:

module4.pdf

Prof. Angela

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