Write 12 page essay on the topic Gender and development projects which focus only on women are doomed to fail.
In this paper we will start with the theoretical approaches regarding women and development. Various gender and development projects especially those directed only towards women will also be discussed. We will restrict our study to Latin America only. We will discuss a few development projects actually designed and implemented in Latin America. For this purpose we will take the example of the projects conducted by World Bank. We will also try to analyze the impact and success of these projects. There is general view that development projects directed towards women only, are doomed to fail we will also try to form an opinion about it and will try to find the answer as well.A theoretical debate on development has identified three major paths upon which the framework for development is based. They are namely Women in Development (WID), Women and Development (WAD), and Gender and Development. In order to develop a sound understanding of these frameworks we will discuss them in detail. 1(Nalini Visvanathan, Lynn Duggan, Laurie Nisonoff, 2005).Women in Development (WID) is the most dominant and probably the oldest framework as well. WID subscribes to the assumptions of the modernization theory. Modernization theory assumes that traditional theories are male dominated and authoritative whereas modern theories were democratic and egalitarian and they did not believe in oppression by men. But it was realized that the benefits of modernization actually did not helped the position of women. Its benefits did not reach them but to the contrary in some cases it undermined their existing position. The focus of this theory was to integrate women in the productive role in the economic and welfare of the society. Strategies were devised even if that requires changes in the legal system to minimize disadvantages against the productive role of the women. Questions regarding women became important and visible in the development theory and practice. This theory had non-confrontational approach. It did not question the existing social structures. It made no attempt in identifying the factors which resulted in modernization non beneficial for women. It ignored the influence of social, cultural, religious factors on the state of women. The second theory Women and Development (WID) emerged as the critique of the modernization theory and WID. It is derived from the dependency theory. With the onset of capitalism it is believed that men had greater opportunities and hence it resulted in the spread of gender hierarchy. Production for exchange which was dominated by men replaced production for use and hence it became the public opinion. The main focus of this theory was that women have always been part of the production process so the concept of integrating women in development is a myth. Its main emphasis is on the processes so this theory focuses on the relationship between woman and development process.