Which two of the following are most likely to be associated with a market-oriented multinational?
(a) Establishing assembly operations in close geographical proximity to major international markets
(b) Using backward vertical integration to secure components from lower-priced overseas locations
(c) Using conglomerate mergers on an international scale to reduce risks
(d) A healthcare company establishing overseas affiliates in high income countries with ageing demographic profiles
(e) Global rationalisation of production operations to gain maximum economies of scale