From the tip of a spear striking a shield, human warfare has been a part of our being. It is one of the prime driving forces in our nature. Early hunting, fire use, and development of language lead to humans to settle down. The Neolithic age, started the transition to farming and cattle herding. Abandoning hunting and gathering lifestyle, some groups of people settled in one spot to plant fields and raise animals. This new way of life brought innovative thoughts such as property ownership and the accumulation of surplus food. This cultural change, lead to more people, more labor, and thus diversification. Food reserves were necessary for survival,which was protected as well as the people. Hence, early human settlements arose on strategic hills and were reinforced with walls. The history of early people is filled with conflicts between settled cities and marauding bands.
The first great empires vigorously attempted to expand their areas of control. Nearly everywhere, the repression, enslavement, or deportation of neighboring peoples was legitimized by divine commands to ” dominate the world. ” to cover these fast-growing Empires, weights and measures, currencies, and official languages were generally adopted in standardized. Additional, loyal classes of government officials were trained in trade routes and markets were protected by military troops and garrisons. Seats of government developed into important cultural and economic centers, and numerous Grand works of public architecture recognition, such as the Pyramid of Egypt.
The Assyrians and Persians residential palaces, babylon’s ziggurats, and hanging gardens, and the Great Wall of China. In the Middle East and Central Asia, Empires were off and threatened or conquered by invaded no Matic people. Human movement such as the arrival of Aryans in India and the door immigration of Greek tribes led to Violent upheavals as well as the mixing of peoples and cultures. Many Conquering the people hold their military superiority to the inventions of the Chariot, armies of individual soldiers on Horseback or a later development. 2700 BC rule of legendary King Gilgamesh of Uruk. 2334 BC King Sargon the first of Arcadia builds up Empire. 2112 BC Kings of the third Dynasty of ur dominate Sumerian city-states.
The Greek wave of colonization that radiator from the mainland to entire Mediterranean region along the blacks Seacoast led to the founding of numerous autonomous city-states, which were prepared to fight for their freedom and Independence. To defend against Persian Invasion into Europe many city-states joined together in the Athenian Alliance, within the Athens exercise strict authority. A similar Alliance System, the Peloponnesian League, was filmed around Sparta. Conflict between the two of the lines is led to the struggle between the two rivals in the Peloponnesian war, in which Athens was ultimately defeated. 550 PC Cypress II The Great establish the great Persian Empire and conquered Babylon. 490 BC Greek Persian Wars, Greek city-state keep Independence. 431 BC Peloponnesian Wars between Athens and Sparta occur over Greece, Athens is defeated. 371 BC Thebes defeats Sparta and gain control over Greece.
Neighboring Macedonia profited from the destruction of power struggles between the Greeks. Philip the second gather the Greek city-states under his political leadership, bringing them something they had not been able to achieve on their own Hellenistic Unity. He uses finances to revolutionize his army. At the time the Phalanx was the strongest military tactic available. Its strength was an immovable wall of spear, shield, and Men. However Philip created a specialized unit, phalanx units trained in the use of a newly-developed longspear.
Horse units normally used as Scouts changed into Lightning Fast Cavalry units. When Alexander the Great, his son became king he inherited his father’s superior army. Alexander the Great, expanded his control be on Europe’s borders in the direction of the Middle East, North Africa, and India. His army succeeded in occupied Persia. Although Alexander’s Empire fell apart after his death, the effects of his cultural exchange between East and West brought about his Conquest we’re on going.
The empires of the successors his generals, who fought each other in Blood of rivalries, and especially in the Ptolemaic rulers in Egypt, as well as Seleucus and his followers in Syria Palestine or characterized by a mixture of both Creek European and middle-eastern influences in art and culture. The magnificently constructed resident cities became melting pots for diverse people and traditions. These Hellenistic cities became Cosmopolitan cities of the time. 359 BC Philip II king of Macedonia dominates Greece. 336 BC Alexander the Great reign and campaigns and conquerors most of Europe to India.
What are the cultural influence of the Hellenistic people continue to be felt, the political history of the great Hill district rounds ended with the rise of the room and the formation of the Roman Empire. Constantly expanding their area influence, the Roman conquered Etruscans, Western Greeks, Celts, and carthaginians, ultimately spreading their rule across the entire Mediterranean region and into the Middle East. The relationship between Rome and its provinces was characterized by exchanges that profited the conquered people as well as the conquerors.
Dispositions in the area of government Administration in law would prove to be the most durable element of Roman culture, shaping Europe throughout the Middle Ages and Beyond. Roman political thought was less individualistic and more pragmatic than will that of the Greeks period the Roman State and Roman civilization was seen as values that inspired a sense of Duty and willing submission. Strict discipline and military force form the foundation of Roman Empire. The Romans also exhibited outstanding achievements in engineering. Among the most impressive examples are there roads and aqueducts, then purse thermal baths, and under floor heating for buildings and sewage systems.
Roman builders and architects also created magnificent Villas and palaces, as well as a dramatic work such as the victory arches in the Colosseum. Roman logistics as well as military structure is the main source of its success in warfare. The civilization would reform it’s military structure and rank to combat ever evolving empire threats. 221 BC Hannibal a carthaginian general invade Italy challenging Rome. 149 BC third Punic War ends with a destruction of Carthage. 44 PC Caesar’s dictatorship leads to his murder. 27bc Octavius first emperor of Rome.
Roman society held strongly Republican values. The empires internal order was protected with strict controls. Yet the growing Dynamics between rich and poor ultimately lead Rome into civil war. Wars of Conquest on the Empire’s borders and Uprising in the Providence is allowed more power to accumulate in the hands of military leaders and politicians who would hope to install a dictatorship. Following the murder of Caesar, the Roman Republic collapse. Caesar’s are Octavian, name change to Augustus, founded the principate, in which Republican Traditions were maintained on a formal basis. In practice, the Imperial.
Began with Augustus rule. Under Augustus rule this brought peace literature and art to flourish. Rome became the unquestionable center of the world. Augustus’s successors who varied in character would both expand and strain the entire. Under them, the Roman Empire experience I further cultural golden age and reach its great geographical extension. The deification of the emperor adopted Hellenistic cult elements of the ruler. With the severan dynasty, keeping control was assumed by powers originating in the North African Hinterlands and influence by West Asian mysterious cults. Which gained in prominence with Roman culture.