Principles of Epidemiology APA Style Reply

I’m working on a Writing question and need guidance to help me study.


Principles of Epidemiology

Ecological Studies/ Fast food Reply to each Peer about their post.

Ecological Studies/ Fast food Reply 1 Angela Vassallo (Reply from teacher):


Thank you for this post. I wanted to point out to you that this week’s discussion is about study design in relation to fast food restaurants in a community and obesity among children living in that community.

We are conducting odds ratios for the homework assignment due on Sunday and not for this week’s discussion. But, I very much appreciate you taking the initiative in the discussion. Do you have any references in relation to your study design discussion post?


Ecological Studies/ Fast food Reply 2 Paola(Reply from Student):

Hi, !

Excellent post! You made the life of some easier by providing the answer to our assignment this week.

I will, however, focus on your post related to the study design aspect of the discussion this week. According to Macera et al. (2013), one of the inherent disadvantage of a cross-sectional design is the inability to distinguish if the exposure occurred prior to after the outcome. In the case presented in our discussion this week, the task is to determine the association between the number of fast-food chains and obesity in children the community. It is therefore important to determine whether the obesity is a direct cause of the availability of fast-food items to children or were the children already obese prior to the consumption of fast food.

How will you address this disadvantage? Do you have other remedies in design that you can utilize?




Macera, C. A., Shaffer, R. A., & Shaffer, P. M. (2013). Introduction to epidemiology: Distribution and determinants of disease in humans (1st ed.). Cengage Learning.

Prof. Angela


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