This is my Q 25 answer.. Q25 and 26 are in the same form.
There are four specific stages of social movements: Social ferment, Popular excitement, Formalization, and Institutionalization or decline.
First of all, widespread dissatisfaction caused by certain social conditions formed Social ferment. This may be initiated by small interest groups and few people organize. Then, due to widespread dissatisfaction caused by social conditions, the mass public began to coalesce around the common goal, and the leader of the movement began to emerge. This means that it has entered the Popular excitement stage. After the formalization of social movements, the organization created a formal network to share information/resources, and political elites began to grow. At this stage, public attention may weaken the decline of the movement, and the cost of mobilization will be high. Finally, the social movement entered the Institutionalization or decline stage repressed, co-opted, succeeds and dissolves, goes mainstream, or fails
After World War II, because black Americans expressed dissatisfaction with the unfair treatment of the law, NAACP and other smaller local interest groups provoked social ferment. In the popular excitement stage, more and more public attention and participation in mass protests. This issue is recognized in the American white social hierarchy. And the political requirements of these people are becoming more and more clear (for example, the WH Civil Rights Committee rejected by Eisenhower; apartheid; fair housing; fair economic opportunities) MLK, Malcolm X, and other leaders and organizers have gradually emerged. In the Formalization stage, they received support from major political figures (such as LBJ) and institutions (such as SCOTUS, DOJ). The Montgomery Bus Boycott proved a sustainable organization. And they increasingly rely on “professionals” like James Lawson. The Council of the Federation is composed of members of the students, the Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, the CongressofRacialEquality, and the NAACP, which proved the transition from loose organization to the alliance. In the Institutionalization stage, the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 proved that this thing has become mainstream