Date Time Est Saturday 8 13 11 21 21 In Course Hist122 I001 Sum 11 Hist122i001

Question 1 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)Seventeenth-century absolutism and constitutionalism were political responses toLouis XIV’s attempts to conquer western Europe.the fear of disorder and breakdown that was the legacy of the Wars of Religion.the rise of the middle classes, who threatened to seize power from monarchs and aristocrats.the Catholic church’s renewed efforts to assert its control over northern Germany.Question 2 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)When Louis XIV assumed direct control as king of France, one of his first goals was tomake a good marriage alliance.rein in France’s unruly nobles.redistribute the tax burden.reactivate the parlements.Question 3 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)Which of the following does not accurately describe a cause of the English civil war (1642–1646) between Charles I and Parliament?Charles I’s failure to grant sufficient income to members of ParliamentCharles I’s use of the Court of Star ChamberCharles I’s refusal to call Parliament into session for eleven yearsCharles I’s attempt to arrest members of Parliament who moved to curb his powerQuestion 4 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)Parliament offered the throne jointly to William (r. 1689–1702) and Mary (r. 1689–1694) in 1688 on the condition that they accepta bill of rights making Parliament a full partner in state governance.Anglican Protestantism as the official religion of England.parliamentary control over taxation.Question 5 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)By the eighteenth century, many Europeans began to try to provide a rationale for the institution of slavery based predominantly onreligious grounds, as many asserted that African “heathens” deserved to be enslaved.Africans’ purported mental––and thus racial––inferiority.historical precedent, pointing to slavery as a “natural” practice that dated as far back as ancient Greece and the Roman empire.the claim that contact with European religion and culture, coupled with hard work, had an edifying, or civilizing, effect on so-called primitive peoples.Question 6 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)The duke of Orléans (1674–1723), successor to Louis XIV and regent to the future Louis XV, took immediate steps to shore up France’s crumbling finances bydoubling the land tax, leading to widespread protests in rural areas throughout the kingdom.canceling plans for further colonial expeditions in the New World.founding a state bank to help the government service its debt, only to see it crash within a few months in the wake of a speculative bubble.imposing high tariffs on British agricultural imports, particularly wool and cotton textiles.Question 7 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)Peter the Great was determined to Westernize his country, and one of the most significant steps in that direction wasappointing a chief minister who managed court affairs, made political appointments, and oversaw mercantile policy.making up for the lack of a Russian middle class by encouraging noblewomen to become involved in science, education, and trade.undertaking extensive colonization efforts in Africa to obtain the raw materials that provided so much of western Europe’s wealth.founding new technical and scientific schools that were run by Western officials.Question 8 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)The most influential writer of the early Enlightenment wasVoltaireNewtonBayleBoussuetQuestion 9 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)In 1784, the German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) used which of the following phrases to represent what he felt the Enlightenment stood for?Sapere aude (“Dare to know”).Nihil ex nihilo (“Nothing comes from nothing”).Ratio est radius divini luminis (“Reason is a ray of divine light”).Libertas in legibus (“Liberty under the laws”).Question 10 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)David Hume believedin a god who was caring and concerned with humanity.that religion was useful for promoting science.that religion was rooted in fear and superstition.that churches needed to recognize the importance of more emotional forms of worship.Question 11 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)The eighteenth-century belief that God created the universe to follow set, logical principles and did not intervene in its functioning once he had set it in motion is known asPietismJansenismatheism.deismQuestion 12 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)How did the Enlightenment in France differ from that in Germany?The German government wholeheartedly supported its intellectuals, including Lessing and Kant, while France’s philosophes faced censorship or arrest.Germany’s intellectuals such as Immanuel Kant were far more interested in the practical application of the new ideology than were their French counterparts.French philosophes were far more aggressive in their condemnation of church and state than were German scholars.French philosophes intended their work for the masses but because the Prussian state limited education to the well-to-do, ordinary people could not participate in the Enlightenment.Question 13 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)In 1787, Louis XVI ordered the judges of the parlements into internal exile because theyrefused to agree to his reform proposals, which included a more uniform land tax, abolition of internal tariffs, and a new state bank.had demanded public audits of all royal expenditures, which he saw as an infringement on his power.had formed a clique of deputies within the Assembly of Notables and began to agitate for sweeping political as well as financial reforms.were unable to stop the spread of propaganda attacking Marie-Antoinette.Question 14 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)The National Assembly, which began its work in 1789, drew up the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, whichwere specifically designed to control rising female radicalism.indicated which individuals worked and produced taxable income and which did not.sought to single out those individuals who were actively involved in reforming the state.promised to recognize essential political and civil rights of the people.Question 15 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)The “incorruptible” leader of the Committee of Public Safety wasJacques-Louis David.Maximilien Robespierre.Georges-Jacques Danton.Jean-Paul Marat.Question 16 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)On June 20, 1789, the deputies to the National Assembly took the “Tennis Court Oath,” which declared thatthe Third Estate did not represent the interests of the entire French nation.the Third Estate represented the interests of the entire French nation.they would not disband until they had given France a binding constitution.they would sweep away the last vestiges of feudal privilege.Question 17 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)The “Republican” constitution of 1799 enabled Napoleon to assume control of the French state because, among other things, itinstituted free elections, which he was sure to win.explicitly made Napoleon and his brothers “guardians of the Revolution.”offered aristocrats a partial return of their property in return for loyalty to the First Consul, Napoleon himself.gave the First Consul authority to pick the Council of State, which drew up all laws.Question 18 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)In 1804, Napoleon, with the pope’s blessing,instituted Catholicism as the state religion in France.annexed Rome as a satellite state.went to war with Protestant England.crowned himself emperor.Question 19 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)Following the battle of Borodino in September of 1812, Napoleonentered Moscow to find that the Russians had set it on fire and retreated.overran Moscow and entered the royal palace, taking Tsar Alexander I prisoner.negotiated a truce with Tsar Alexander I in which the Russian monarch agreed to relinquish control of Poland in exchange for a French retreat.ordered his troops to retreat, an effort that failed, however, to save the bulk of his army.Question 20 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)Because Allied powers still feared Napoleon after his final defeat in 1815, theyexiled him to St. Helena, a tiny, remote island in the middle of the south Atlantic Ocean.ordered all mention of his name removed from legal codes established by Napoleon.required schools to omit mention of him when teaching students about recent history.forbade any of his former officers or troops to serve in the French army.Question 21 (True/False Worth 1 points)Jean-Baptiste Colbert followed a policy of mercantilism, which allowed him to support French enterprise and manufacturing at home and in the colonies.TrueFalseQuestion 22 (True/False Worth 1 points)After the army purged Parliament of moderates late in 1648, the remaining radical members formed the so-called “Puritan Parliament.”TrueFalseQuestion 23 (True/False Worth 1 points)In 1651, Thomas Hobbes published Leviathan in which he argued that the security of a society demanded that the power of government be limited.TrueFalseQuestion 24 (True/False Worth 1 points)In his 1690 Two Treatises of Government, John Locke proposed that a government’s powers and duties should be limited to protecting citizens and preserving their rights.TrueFalseQuestion 25 (True/False Worth 1 points)The pattern of trade that linked the raw materials of the Americas, the products of Europe, and African slaves is called the Atlantic System by historians.TrueFalseQuestion 26 (True/False Worth 1 points)The early-eighteenth-century Protestant revival in Germany, the Dutch Republic, and Scandinavia was known as Jansenism and emphasized deeply emotional religious beliefs and a close reading of the Bible.TrueFalseQuestion 27 (True/False Worth 1 points)In 1714, the German elector of Hanover became King George I of England because he was the closest Protestant relative of Queen Anne (r. 1702–1714).TrueFalseQuestion 28 (True/False Worth 1 points)In 1703, Peter the Great began building one of his most significant achievements: Russia’s new capital city, named Volgograd.TrueFalseQuestion 29 (True/False Worth 1 points)Voltaire was the chief editor of the multivolume Encyclopedia published from 1751–1772, which was the first publishing project that intended to examine everything that was known.TrueFalseQuestion 30 (True/False Worth 1 points)In An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith argued that individual interest and action led the individual to choose to do what was also beneficial to society.TrueFalseQuestion 31 (True/False Worth 1 points)In 1762, Jean-Jacques Rousseau published The Social Contract, which proposed that people would only be truly moral and free when their society was based on a social contract between the citizens, rather than a contract they made with a ruler.TrueFalseQuestion 32 (True/False Worth 1 points)In order to shore up government finances and spread the tax burden more evenly, the British Parliament passed the Townshend Acts in 1765, which set off widespread rioting in the colonies.TrueFalseQuestion 33 (True/False Worth 1 points)The immediate cause of the French Revolution was the financial crisis that grew out of France’s support of the American colonies in their struggle against Britain.TrueFalseQuestion 34 (True/False Worth 1 points)When the Estates-General met in 1789 for the first time in 175 years, people expected it to limit its actions to solving the state’s financial woes.TrueFalseQuestion 35 (True/False Worth 1 points)The storming of the Bastille on July 14, 1789, showed that the common people were willing to intervene with force to protect the Revolution.TrueFalseQuestion 36 (True/False Worth 1 points)Jean Paul Marat, a brilliant young general, defeated Austrian armies in Northern Italy in 1797 and formed the Cisalpine Republic.TrueFalseQuestion 37 (True/False Worth 1 points)In 1804, Napoleon drafted the Civil Code, which guaranteed property rights, religious toleration, and equality before the law for all adult males.TrueFalseQuestion 38 (True/False Worth 1 points)The battle of Trafalgar was Napoleon’s final and greatest defeat.TrueFalseQuestion 39 (True/False Worth 1 points)In 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna met to fix post-Napoleonic national boundaries and install liberal and revolutionary-style governments to protect this settlement.TrueFalseQuestion 40 (True/False Worth 1 points)The Reform Bill of 1832 more than doubled the British electorate and set a precedent for later changes in suffrage.TrueFalse

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