Compose a 1500 words essay on PHILOSOPHY: ETHICAL ISSUES. Needs to be plagiarism free!
Its name rooted in the Greek word ethos or customs and the Latin equivalent mos, Ethics bears the connotation of a moral science. There is also a general perception that Ethics simply exists to impose a thousand and one do’s and don’ts. Thus such acts as cruelty, rape, and murder are deemed bad or unethical, while altruism, temperance, and respect are good.
In addition, Ethics is traditionally based on unchanging universal laws derived from a priori principles. Scholastic philosophy, for example, teaches that the end of a moral life is the attainment of the Summum Bonum or God, which cannot be directly proven empirically. For centuries, the potent Christian states were stalwart defenders of the time-honored ethical system, until avant-garde philosophers of the 17th century sowed the seed of a new moral ideal along rationalist and empiricist strains.
In his Essay on the Morals and Spirit of the Nations, Voltaire upheld the illumination of the human mind. Subsequently, Immanuel Kant in his Critique of Practical Reason advanced the idea of an absolute and unconditional moral imperative inside the heart of man, who is free from immutable supernatural and natural laws (Durant 277).
Other radical thinkers followed, among them being Friedrich Hegel who opened the human mind for a brand of ethical thinking extolling liberty as the goal of order (Durant 298). Meanwhile, Arthur Schopenhauer deposed the intellect to enthrone the will as the new master and determinant of human character.
There was no stopping Ethics from its metamorphosis as the 19th century Herbert Spencer announced the biological evolution of morals whose highest awareness encompassed “the greatest length, breadth, and completeness of life.” (Ethics I 22).