AU Manifest Destiny Social Classes Labor Unions & American Workforce Discussions

Question Description

There are 4 assignments due…assignment 4 is a PowerPoint

Please view the instructions for them below…they only have to be 600 words each

There should be FOUR documents once complete

Send a turnitin report for them all

ASSIGNMENT 1:

Background

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It is the mid-1800’s in an ever-changing 19th century. The phrase “Manifest Destiny” is believed to have been created by an editor of the Democratic Review and the Morning News by the name of John O’Sullivan. “Manifest Destiny held that the United States was destined—by God, its advocates believed—to expand its dominion and spread democracy and capitalism across the entire North American continent” (History.com Editors, 2010, para. 1).

Just like the idea of Manifest Destiny suggests, the U.S. is in a period of new development. In a whirlwind of major changes, the United States experiences things such as the state of Texas entering the U.S. as a slave state, a boundary dispute with Britain over the Oregon territory, and the Mexican War.

The United States experiences a constant push for change and an expansion out West. Railcars are running and treading upon new territory, gold is being discovered in California, and the issue of slavery is highly debated.

One aspect of Manifest Destiny is the belief that American culture and government is the best. Along this same line of thought, many companies vie for the “best place to work” in their area or region. This is a coveted title that employers hope will attract quality employees. In essence, they have the same feelings of superiority that are seen in the Manifest Destiny in their workplace.

This time period was also known as the Age of Imperialism.

“American imperialism” is a term that refers to the economic, military, and cultural influence of the United States on other countries. First popularized during the presidency of James K. Polk, the concept of an “American Empire” was made a reality throughout the latter half of the 1800s. During this time, industrialization caused American businessmen to seek new international markets in which to sell their goods. In addition, the increasing influence of social Darwinism led to the belief that the United States was inherently responsible for bringing concepts such as industry, democracy, and Christianity to less developed “savage” societies. The combination of these attitudes and other factors led the United States toward imperialism. (Lumen Boundless US History, n.d., para. 1)

Various groups were impacted negatively when it came to changes and ideas happening across the United States during this time. American Imperialism changed the demographics of the United States in the following ways:

  1. Native Americans were removed by force from the land east of the Mississippi River to the west.
  2. Chinese immigrants were prohibited from becoming an American citizen because “Americans” were felt threatened by the high influx of new immigrants coming to seek gold and work on railroad expansion.
  3. Mexican immigrants were forced to march back to their homeland.

This legacy affects United States society and workplaces today, as these minority groups have only recently gained the freedom to obtain work in higher-paying jobs. Up until the Civil Rights Act of 1964, these groups experienced hardship when trying to obtain work. These groups consist of but are not limited to Baby Boomers, African Americans, Native Americans, and Immigrants.

The Civil Rights Act helped move equality recognition along because it was now prohibited to discriminate based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. This paved the way for a diverse workplace. We see today how there are more diverse management teams. Boardrooms that were once filled with only men are now seeing women. Multiple ethnicities can now be found in many offices.

How do these events of the past affect us today? During the 1900s women were taking even more of a stand to be heard and recognized as equal citizens. For example, women fought for the right to vote until it was granted in 1920 with the 19th amendment. This movement and discovery have changed our society and economics in many ways. For example, people moved from the farm to the city for opportunities to work and live.

In the workplace, of course, there have been many changes made since the 1900s. But we can retrace history’s footsteps back to the industrial age and attribute some of today’s opportunities and societal norms to this time period.

Even though there were many negative effects from expansion felt by immigrant groups and from natives of our land, one positive outlook that developed from the age of Manifest Destiny and American Imperialism was the idea of the “American Dream.” To date, people still coin the term and try to achieve this ultimate status.

By setting out to achieve their dreams by working hard and expanding to new “territories,” companies and businessmen and women try to still acquire the “American Dream.” The “American Dream” is often seen as an extension of Manifest Destiny in that Americans feel that their way of life is the best and that they can attain the best life possible through hard work.

In addition to this, the Monroe Doctrine, American Indian policies, slave codes, and territorial annexations have increased diversity in American society and economics today.

More people of minorities are able to obtain jobs due to freedoms granted to the American Indians and the former slaves. The Monroe Doctrine and territorial annexations increased the lands where these freedoms were made available to individuals.

Of course, these added people affect your career opportunities today in that you will be competing with more individuals for the same jobs. On a positive note, your experience with diversity in the workplace only strengthens your position but the team as a whole.

References

History.com Editors. (2010). Manifest Destiny. Retrieved from https://www.history.com/topics/manifest-destiny (Links to an external site.)

Lumen Boundless US History. (n.d.). American imperialism. Retrieved from https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-ushistory/chapter/american-imperialism/ (Links to an external site.)

Prompt

For this assignment, you will continue to ponder the immigration and expansion ideas and mindset of the individuals in the early 20th century.

Assignment Instructions:

In a paper of at least 600 words using two sources (an outside source and one of your readings or videos in class are fine):

  1. Discuss how U.S. Imperialism and the Manifest Destiny impact U.S. workplaces today
  2. How has U.S. Imperialism changed the demographics in your workplace?
  3. Give an example of how at least one group has been affected by U.S. immigration and expansion.

Sources must be cited in the text AND in the reference list.

Please

ASSIGNMENT 2:

Background

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Many of the social classes in the early American colonies were based on the same ideas that existed in England. Your class was based on your bloodline and money. But, there was a new idea that your class could be based on merit. Work hard and drive to be on the top, and you can make it happen. That mentality did not exist in England but was starting to take form in America. In today’s working society there still seems to exist a mentality that if you have the right name or enough money you can climb to the top a little easier, but there is still room for those who can work hard and have the drive to succeed. Today, labor laws provide a basis for workers’ protection and ability to stand against any sort of discrimination. However, legal framework was not formed over the night, it took over two centuries to arrive we the United States is now.

Where do our management and leadership practices stem from and how did the labor movement and labor laws affect and shape the America we know today? During the age of industrialization and development and expansion of the western world in the United States, workers started demanding more recognition and better conditions. Unions of various forms were starting to appear across the United States because workers felt the need to band together and unite in their vision for a favorable working future. More and more occurrences of violence and arrests due to strikes were happening because of unhappy workers.

Lumen (2018) states:

The degrading conditions of industrial labor sparked strikes across the country. The final two decades of the nineteenth century saw over 20,000 strikes and lockouts in the United States. Industrial laborers struggled to carve for themselves a piece of the prosperity lifting investors and a rapidly expanding middle class into unprecedented standards of living. But workers were not the only ones struggling to stay afloat in industrial America. American farmers also lashed out against the inequalities of the Gilded Age and denounced political corruption for enabling economic theft. (para. 10)

Independence Hall Association (2018) adds to this idea by stating:

Owners had strategies of their own. If a company found itself with a high inventory, the boss might afford to enact a lockout, which is a reverse strike. In this case, the owner tells the employees not to bother showing up until they agree to a pay cut. Sometimes when a new worker was hired the employee was forced to sign a YELLOW-DOG CONTRACT, or an ironclad oath swearing that the employee would never join a union.

Strikes could be countered in a variety of ways. The first measure was usually to hire strikebreakers, or SCABS, to take the place of the regular labor force. Here things often turned violent. The crowded cities always seemed to have someone hopeless enough to “CROSS THE PICKET LINE” during a strike. The striking workers often responded with fists, occasionally even leading to death. (para. 9-10)

Because of the high number of strikes and lockouts, state and federal governments needed to be involved. Independence Hall Association (2018) states :

Prior to the 20th century, the government never sided with the union in a labor dispute. Bosses persuaded the courts to issue injunctions to declare a strike illegal. If the strike continued, the participants would be thrown into prison. When all these efforts failed to break a strike, the government at all levels would be willing to send a militia to regulate as in the case of the Great Upheaval.

What was at stake? Each side felt they were fighting literally for survival. The owners felt if they could not keep costs down to beat the competition, they would be forced to close the factory altogether. They said they could not meet the workers’ unreasonable demands.

What were the employees demanding? In the entire history of labor strife, most goals of labor can be reduced to two overarching issues: higher wages and better working conditions. In the beginning, management would have the upper hand. But the sheer numbers of the American workforce was gaining momentum as the century neared its conclusion. (para. 11-13)

Today, both state and federal governments are involved in labor conflicts. The list below represents just three roles of state and federal governments in labor conflicts for example.

  1. The federal government is connected to labor unions since most labor unions are aligned with a political party.
  2. State agencies such as workforce commissions ensure that the rights of laborers are protected.
  3. The federal government establishes the minimum wage and prosecutes employers who violate it.

History provides models that are still in place today. Three ways that 18th-century class/societal stereotypes have evolved into current management and leadership practices can be found in gentry, middling, and farmers. The gentry were the upper class of landowners. This class can be compared to the business owners of today. As landowners and now current day business owners, they see it as their duty to govern and direct others. The middling, or what we might call the middle class, were the tradesmen. They had a specific skill and could perform it well for good pay. In today’s society, the middling would be likened to the skilled workers such as teachers and medical professionals. Finally, the farmers were the unskilled workers who did manual labor. These people too are found in today’s society as the working class. With minimal skills, they are subject to doing any job they can find. The gentry and today’s business owners represent those in management while the middling and farmers were led by them.

How does this affect your career?

It is important to note that “U.S. labor history shows that the most important achievements unions have gained for working people have been achieved peacefully. Historic accomplishments like the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, which outlawed child labor and created the 40-hour workweek, came after the age of industrial violence ended” (Green, 1997). With this information, it encourages employees to plead their case where labor disputes are concerned in a manner that speaks of professionalism.

References

Green, J. (1997). Why Teach Labor History? OAH Magazine of History,11(2), 5-8. doi:10.1093/maghis/11.2.5

Lumen. (2018). The labor movement. Retrieved https://courses.lumenlearning.com/ushistory2ay/chapter/the-labor-movement-2/ (Links to an external site.)

Independence Hall Association. (2018). Labor vs. management. Retrieved from http://www.ushistory.org/us/37b.asp (Links to an external site.)

Prompt

Research general labor unions and think about how they affected laws, politics, and helped bring about change. Then research unions in your own career field.

Imagine you are the supervisor in a workplace, and write a 600 word minimum memo to your employees designed to improve cooperation, team spirit, and morale among your staff:

  • Directly address your employees.
  • Discuss three ways that 18th-century class/societal stereotypes still affect relationships and management in American workplaces today.
  • Explain what your state regulations are regarding the formation/operation of labor unions and worker disputes or conflicts.
  • Name and discuss at least three new policies you intend to implement now that would reduce stereotypes and conflicts as well as increase teamwork and a positive working environment.

Make sure you cite at least two sources in your memo.

ASSIGNMENT 3:

Background

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The online Free Dictionary by Farlex (2018) defines political liberty as “one’s freedom to exercise one’s rights as guaranteed under the laws of the country” (para. 1). While Article 9 of the Human Rights Act provides protection for freedom of thought, belief, and religion, so people could exercise their political freedom without being decriminalized (Equality and Human Rights Commission, 2018).

Freedom is defined by the Merriam-Webster dictionary as the “freedom of the person in going and coming, equality before the courts, security of private property, freedom of opinion and its expression, and freedom of conscience subject to the rights of others and of the public” (Political Freedom, n.d., para. 1). There are many ways that the concept of personal freedom affects Americans in their personal and professional lives today. Here are just a few:

  1. freedom from oppression;
  2. the absence of disabling conditions for an individual;
  3. the absence of life conditions of compulsion, e.g., economic compulsion, in a society;
  4. freedom from “internal” constraints on political action or speech (e.g., social conformity);
  5. sometimes seen as a negative, freedom from governmental regulation.

Political freedom, in general, is promoted as one of the basic foundations on which America is founded, and one of the freedoms enjoyed by Americans which might not be offered in other countries. Americans are provided the opportunity to participate in elections with the freedom to vote for the candidate of their choice without fear of retribution. On the other hand, they are not required to vote in an election, which also represents freedom of choice. In addition, freedom from oppression guarantees personal liberties such as freedom of religious choice, freedom of speech, and freedom of self-expression. America today places very few constraints on the American public, especially in regard to self-expression and freedom of speech. Political rallies and meetings may be held with no fear of governmental intervention, unless violence becomes an issue, at which point a government entity such as law enforcement may intervene. Freedom from any governmental regulation at all could result in a break in societal interaction; thus, a fine line must be walked by the government to lead and govern without being oppressive.

Equality of opportunity is defined by The Free Dictionary (2018) as, “absence of discrimination, as in the workplace, based on race, color, age, gender, national origin, religion, or mental or physical disability” (para. 1). In essence, equality of opportunity is taken to mean that all things are or should be available to the American people, regardless of their personal circumstances. According to John Goodman (2015), what America promises is only opportunity, not actual equality. Mr. Goodman (2015) cites a CBS News Poll indicating only 4% of Americans “consider income disparities as the most important problem facing the country” (para. 3). Can this be taken to mean that Americans consider only income as an equalizing factor? Current racial discord would indicate this is not the case, as racial discrimination continues to exist, even though great strides have been made in this country to eliminate this type of discrimination. While America is touted as the “Land of Opportunity,” do those opportunities assume that every person is on an equal level, i.e., equal societal standing, equal education, equal income? Equal opportunity to succeed should be available to each person with no regard to race, creed, religious affiliation, or mental or physical disability; however, each person must make the most of the opportunity afforded him/her.

While equity and equality in the workplace are sometimes used interchangeably, there is, in fact, a difference in their meaning. In the area of work rewards, for instance, equity would mean team members were awarded proportionally based on their contribution, while equality would involve rewarding each team member equally, no matter their contribution to the project. There are numerous situations in the workplace involving equity and/or equality. Some of these situations include:

  1. Gender
  2. Disability
  3. Race
  4. Pay
  5. Age

Gender equality in the workplace does not mean women and men will be treated the same, but that the opportunities available within the workplace will not depend upon whether the applicant is male or female. Gender equity refers to the fairness of treatment, whether male or female, In the same way, equality in regard to disabled workers would mean they are treated the same as employees with no disability, while treating the disabled workers in an equitable manner would require making changes in order to allow fair treatment; i.e. installation of wheelchair ramps or purchasing specific equipment in order to facilitate job performance. While great strides have been made in the American workplace to overcome any type of bias, efforts should be continued in order to phase out any and all discrimination.

References

Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary. (n.d.). Political freedom. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/political%20freedom (Links to an external site.)

The Free Dictionary by Farlex. (2018). Political Freedom. Retrieved from https://www.thefreedictionary.com/Freedom+(political) (Links to an external site.)

Equality and Human Rights Commission. (2018). Article 9:Freedom of thought, belief and Religion. Retrieved from https://www.equalityhumanrights.com/en/human-rights-act/article-9-freedom-thought-belief-and-religion (Links to an external site.)

The Free Dictionary. (2016). Equality of opportunity. Retrieved from https://www.thefreedictionary.com/Equality+of+opportunity (Links to an external site.)

Goodman, John C. (2015). The Promise of America: Opportunity, Not Equality. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/johngoodman/2015/04/2…

Prompt

Make Your Own Visual Aid: Equality of Opportunity in the American Workforce

Create a poster, flyer, or infographic that represents what equality of opportunity has meant, and continues to mean, in American professional life and workplace culture today. Your assignment should be a two-page Word document or PDF:

Page 1 will be your visual representation of equality of opportunity (a poster, flyer, or infographic) :

  • Decorate Page 1 with photos, graphics, colors, word art, etc.
  • Use a minimum of 200 words of text to explain your overall vision, point of view, caption your photos, etc.

Page 2 will be your 400 word minimum explanation, in your own words, of why you selected the photos, graphics, decorations, etc. that you chose for Page 1:

  • Clearly explain how your choices relate to what you learned in this week of the course.
  • Be very specific in demonstrating to your instructor how your choices connect to the material you studied in the course this week.
  • Explain what the term equality of opportunity means to you.

Remember to cite all sources you use

ASSIGNMENT 4:

Background

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American imperialism refers to the influence of the United States on the economy, culture, and military of other countries. The Monroe Doctrine, policies regarding Native Americans, and slave codes were thought to be put into place as protections against acts of aggression and rebellion against the United States by entities both home and abroad. Today’s society remains affected by these historical acts in that legal systems became more unified over the years, as did educational opportunities. Additionally, the United States still provides financial aid and military defense to many territories annexed many years ago. American economics remain affected by import/export treaties and the place of power held by America in the financial arena. America is fueled by innovation, which has led to the development of products and services, not only at home but worldwide.

Societal stereotypes abounded in 18th century America, especially regarding race and class. Indians of the Midwest (2011) reports, “The most prevalent negative images of Midwest Indians in the 18th and 19th centuries showed them killing and/or capturing White people, especially women” (para. 2). In addition, racial stereotypes existed regarding Irish immigrants: they were seen as only fit for hard physical labor. African Americans were unfairly seen as slaves and mentally inferior to whites. These stereotypes and class distinctions have been overcome, for the most part, due to education and acknowledgment of basic human rights afforded every human being. Civil rights laws have made it possible for people of all nationalities to be equal as far as work position, pay, and managerial possibilities. These laws have also made it possible for women and men to work side by side with equal classifications and job titles. There is still much work to do on total equality for pay and position but because of the evolution of class or societal stereotypes to what we have today, the future looks promising for all those who have dealt with discrimination in the past. Current management and leadership practices reflect this progress by implementing laws and rules regarding discriminatory practices in the workplace and working toward equality for all employees.

The American Labor movement “…grew out of the need to protect the common interest of workers.” (History.com Editors, 2009, para. 1) This protection included fighting for better wages, safe working conditions, and better hours. The American government needed to step in to help. One way the government played a role in the American labor movement according to the United States Department of Labor (n.d.):

1. The Office of Labor-Management Standards was created to administer and enforce most provisions of the Labor Management Reporting and Disclosure Act of 1959, which “…directly affects millions of people throughout the United States” (para. 1). This act directly affects unions, to include fair reporting of financial status, elections, and protecting union funds.

Another role government played in the American labor movement was:

2. Governmental involvement in labor disputes is generally held to that of an umpire or referee, overseeing dispute negotiations and protecting the public interest. A more active role may be taken in the event of strikes, especially if violence erupts.

Yet, another role the government played during the Great Depression in concerning unions and the labor movement was:

3. Government encouraged labor unions and forced employers to recognize and negotiate with labor unions.

Political freedom is defined as freedom from oppression, the absence of disabling conditions or the absence of compulsion, especially economic compulsion, in a society. Political freedom in today’s climate includes participating in an election, either by voting or being a candidate; the right to a fair trial; and being free from tyranny (i.e., part of a democracy). Political freedom in personal life may include freedom from restraints on social interaction or enforced social conformity.

While the concepts of equality and equity are occasionally thought to be the same thing, differences exist. Equality is basically treating everyone the same way, while equity is providing each individual with the means to be successful. There are numerous areas of the workplace in which each of these can be involved with some of those areas being gender equality/equity, age equality/equity, race equality/equity, pay equality/equity, and religious equality/equity. In each of these areas, care must be taken to act in a nondiscriminatory manner, i.e., treating each member of your team equally fair, while making sure each employee or co-worker is provided with the tools they need to perform their task successfully.

References

History.com Editors. (2009). Labor movement. Retrieved from https://www.history.com/topics/labor (Links to an external site.)

Indians of the Midwest. (2011). Stereotypes. Retrieved from http://publications.newberry.org/indiansofthemidwest/indian-imagery/stereotypes/ (Links to an external site.)

United States Department of Labor. Labor relations. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.dol.gov/general/topic/labor-relations

Prompt

In this assignment, you will create a timeline to help you understand the context of events and movements you studied this week, and how these events relate to your current career. You will put these ideas together for presentation in a PowerPoint and explore how they influenced each other and your career.

In this assignment, you will choose three ways that historical events such as imperialism, social class/societal stereotypes, the American labor movement, political freedom, and equality vs equity have affected American society and economics today. Put them in order of when they occurred in American history and create a PowerPoint presentation that pulls them all together.

Instructions:

  1. Choose three events or policies that you believe have affected American society and economics today. You may select any three events from the historical themes/times we studied in this class.
  2. Describe each event or policy and explain how you believe the policy has affected American society and economics today.
  3. Each slide must have an image (picture) from American History that represents it. The picture can be a person, a document, a poster, a cartoon, a photograph, etc. from American history. Please avoid using clip art, and be sure to include a citation to the history website where you found this image in small text on the slide.
  4. Imagine what you would say if you were presenting to your co-workers or classmates. Instead of typing that information into speaker notes, describe the importance of each event or policy in your own words directly on each slide (200 words minimum per slide). Your descriptions must be written in text boxes on the slides where your instructor can see them. You may use more than one slide per policy if you wish.
  5. You must include at least 5 slides (an introduction, 3 policy slides, and a reference slide) for your PowerPoint presentation. You also must cite all sources, including the images you use on each slide.

Submit your presentation as a PowerPoint presentation file (.ppt or .pptx file).

Prof. Angela

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