Ashford University Wk 4 Consumer Safety Discussion

WEEK 4

Prepare: In preparation for your first post in this discussion, you will become familiar with the case of Perdue Farms by means of the material listed under Required Resources (Generally). You will also find more material under Required Resources (Per Subject Heading) because the specific task for this discussion is to examine this case with an eye for any one of the following four subject headings in business ethics: (1) the environment, (2) advertising, (3) consumer safety and (4) moral responsibility. You must select one of these subject headings and your selection will be the specific focus of your work for your discussion. Accordingly, you will be responsible to complete the readings and videos listed under your chosen subject heading.

Reflect: If you choose the environment subject heading, reflect on the sheer density of chickens raised at any given time in the Perdue facilities. The disposal of their discarded remains and their processing for distribution, either individually and most definitely together, pose a number of environmental concerns.

If you choose the advertising subject heading, reflect on how the two videos on Perdue farms present the sharp contrast between the way the company presents its product and the way in which it has been discovered to run its chicken farms. Consider whether this is an example of failure to provide truth in advertising and how you would support such a stance.

If you choose the consumer safety subject heading, reflect on the way in which chickens raised in factory farms risks consumer safety. These might include (a) bacterial contamination, (b) the effects of antibiotics on the meat that is consumed, or (c) the release of adrenaline, cortisone, and other chemicals resulting from the acute stress endured by factory farm animals, which then becomes part of the meat that is later consumed by humans.

If you choose the moral responsibility heading, reflect on the stewardship role that may fall upon humans toward non-human animals. Can we utilize them as mere means to an end (for entertainment, companionship, or food)? Or do we have special obligations toward them (e.g., not to mistreat or torture them and to slaughter them quickly and without stress) because they are sentient beings?

Once you have completed the indicated readings and videos, reflect on the ethical theories that we have covered in the discussions thus far and identify one that you want to apply for your analysis in your discussion post.

Also, reflect on the regulations (or lack thereof) in the factory farming industry in order to be able to examine how our nation’s laws affect the operations of the business. You will need to research the applicable laws on the factory farming industry.

Finally, since Perdue Farms is an American corporation, reflect on the mixed economic system in the United States in order to articulate the setting for the operations of factory farming, and then, be able to analyze the ethical actions of Perdue given this setting.

Write: In the first part of your initial post, you will need to introduce the Perdue case within the particular subject heading that you have chosen. In this introduction, you will also need to (1) articulate the relevant characteristics of our mixed economic system and (2) present the regulations for the factory farming industry. These will provide the setting for you to be able to examine how the nation’s laws affect its operations.

In the second part of your initial post, present your analysis of the problem in a way that identifies which entities (Perdue as a corporation, the economic system in the USA, the regulatory control of the state, or all of these) have a role in the problem that you have presented. In your analysis, you must assess the negative effects of the interplay between business activity and one of the following: the environment, advertising, consumer safety, or corporate social responsibility. Your focus must be an ethical analysis of this interplay, and it must be well supported by reliable and/or scholarly sources by clearly identifying the ethical theory that you are applying in your analysis.

Revise: Read the feedback provided by your professor to your initial post, either directly to you or to your fellow students. Use this as an opportunity to learn from your professor, especially with regard to the best ways to apply the course material and your research to your analysis. On the basis of what you have learned in this process, post an improved revision of your initial post that applies the additional knowledge that you have gained.

Remember that your grade depends on the quality of your initial and revised responses, not just on the submission of an attempt at improvement. It is thus to your advantage to post the best initial post you can and then to also improve that best effort as much as you can through revision. Taking this process seriously will help you develop the skills you need to do well on the Final Project.

Requirements for Your Initial Post:

  • Your initial post should be at least 400 words in length.
  • It should address the prompt in its entirety. This means that you should not split your response to the prompt in multiple posts. Your examination should be both thorough and succinct. This is a combination that demands time and thought, so give yourself sufficient time to draft and revise.
  • Please be advised that until you post, you will not see what your fellow students are posting. Once you submit your post, you will be able to view the posts from your other classmates. You can then proceed to reply to at least two different threads based on the required material for this discussion.
  • Your list of references for your initial post should include the videos and the other required reading material for this discussion, the Instructor Guidance, and any other announcements presented to you by your professor. List all the course material that informed your work in the list of references and cite these too where appropriate. In addition, your references should include any other sources that you consult to inform yourself (but not Wikipedia or similar sources).
  • Your initial post for this discussion should be submitted no later than the end of Thursday (11:59 pm, U.S. Mountain time).

Requirements for Replies to Other Threads:

  • At least two of the four posts required should be in the form of replies to fellow classmates in threads other than your own.
  • . Your list of references for each reply should include all of the course material that has informed your reply, in addition to any research that you have obtained on your own.
  • Your replies should focus on the specific examination presented by your fellow student, and these should include an examination of whether or not the characteristics of the ethical theory and/or economic system were identified well, and whether or not their application and analysis was also carried out successfully. Providing such an examination is not an attack on your fellow student but an attempt to work together with your fellow student toward the better understanding of the ethical theories employed, as well as their application.

Requirements for Revising Your Initial Post:

  • Submit a revision of your initial post by either replying to your own post, or to the feedback provided to you by your professor.
  • There is no minimum word requirement for your revised initial post. But you should always explain the reasons for revising your post so that it is clear what you are doing. If you are revising only a few words, or an ethical theory, you should not just submit a post with vague language such as: “duty ethics works better here” or “I did not consider the economic system.” It is important to recognize that no one can read your mind so you need to provide the setting for your revision (Why? What prompted it? What course material informed you?) , and it is important to write in clear language and complete sentences.
  • Your revised initial post is your chance to correct any oversights or errors in your initial post, or show your improved understanding of the material and its applications to the case at hand. You may, for example, come to the realization that another ethical theory is better than the one that you initially chose. Accordingly, your revision should indicate that you chose another ethical theory and an explanation why you find the replacement more suitable. You may also find the need to revise any relevant portions of your analysis. Or, you might have realized that your conclusion did not take into account important factors necessary for your evaluation of the situation.
  • You should maximize the improvement of your initial post by employing your professor’s feedback as a guide. Keep in mind that you may not always receive direct feedback from your professor. But your professor will have submitted feedback in the discussion to other posts. So read your professor’s feedback whether it is addressed to you directlyor to other fellow students. This will give you much to think about and apply to your own post.
  • If your professor or a fellow classmate responds to your revised initial post, and on this basis, you find good reason to submit yet another revision, then by all means do so. The more you improve your initial post, the more you will benefit both in terms of your learning and most likely your grade.

Required Resources

TEXT

Fieser, J. (2015). Introduction to business ethics [Electronic version]. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu/

  • Chapter 2: Capitalism
    • Read only the Media Feature titled Capitalism: Perdue located in Section 2.1, at the end of the Capitalism subheading.

ASHFORD COURSE MATERIAL

Zúñiga y Postigo, G. (2015). The moral good in three traditional ethical theories [PowerPoint Slides].

  • This PowerPoint document covers the main characteristics of utilitarianism, deontology, and virtue ethics, and what is the moral good in each of these.

MULTIMEDIA

PerdueChicken. (2014, August 1). TV Spot – Perdue farm – We believe in a better chicken (Links to an external site.) [Video file]. Retrieved from

  • This is a cartoon commercial aired by Perdue to promote the freshness and quality of Perdue chickens, who are depicted as living well. Transcript
    Accessibility Statement (Links to an external site.)
    Privacy Policy (Links to an external site.)

Truth-worx Cornelia. (2014, January 16). Chicken factory farmer speaks out (Links to an external site.) [Video file]. Retrieved from

  • Farmer Craig Watts open up his farm to share the startling realities of raising chicken according to his contractual arrangement with Perdue. Transcript
    Accessibility Statement (Links to an external site.)
    Privacy Policy

BUSINESS ETHICS MATERIALS

ENVIRONMENTAL

ADVERTISING

SAFETY

MORAL RESPONSIBILITY

(ENVIRONMENTAL

Required Resources: Environmental

TEXT

FIESER, J. (2015). INTRODUCTION TO BUSINESS ETHICS [ELECTRONIC VERSION]. RETRIEVED FROM HTTPS://CONTENT.ASHFORD.EDU/

CHAPTER 9: ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

ARTICLES

CARMAN, N. (2009, MARCH 30). HYDROGEN SULFIDE NEEDS HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT LISTING UNDER CAA TITLE III (LINKS TO AN EXTERNAL SITE.) [LETTER TO U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY]. RETRIEVED FROM HTTPS://EARTHWORKS.ORG/PUBLICATIONS/HYDROGEN_SULFI…

LETTER REQUESTING EPA TO LIST HYDROGEN SULFIDE IN AIR EMISSIONS FROM VARIOUS INDUSTRIAL WASTES (SUCH AS THOSE FROM SLAUGHTERHOUSES, INCLUDING CHICKEN FACTORY FARMS WITH WASTE INCINERATORS) AS A HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT.

HEINZEN, T., FRANTZ, T., NIVENS, J., KIMBRELL, G., JARRETT, J., MALOTT, M., … EDWARDS, S. (2011). PETITION FOR THE REGULATION OF AMMONIA AS A CRITERIA POLLUTANT UNDER CLEAN AIR ACT SECTIONS 108 AND 109 [CITIZEN PETITION TO THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY] (LINKS TO AN EXTERNAL SITE.). RETRIEVED FROM HTTP://WWW.ENVIRONMENTALINTEGRITY.ORG/DOCUMENTS/PE…

THIS IS A PETITION TO THE EPA FOR THE REGULATION OF AMMONIA AS A POLLUTANT.

HOOVER, J. (2013). CAN’T YOU SMELL THAT SMELL? CLEAN AIR ACT FIXES FOR FACTORY FARM AIR POLLUTION (LINKS TO AN EXTERNAL SITE.). STANFORD JOURNAL OF ANIMAL LAW AND POLICY, 6, 1-29. RETRIEVED FROM HTTP://DIGITALCOMMONS.LAW.UMARYLAND.EDU/CGI/VIEWCO…

THE ARTICLE ARGUES THAT THE EPA SHOULD REGULATE THE EMISSIONS OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE AND AMMONIA, TWO POLLUTANTS FOR WHICH FACTORY FARMS ARE MAJOR SOURCES.

U.S. GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE. (2008). CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS: EPA NEEDS MORE INFORMATION AND A CLEARLY DEFINED STRATEGY TO PROTECT AIR AND WATER QUALITY FROM POLLUTANTS OF CONCERN (LINKS TO AN EXTERNAL SITE.) (GAO-08-944). RETRIEVED FROM HTTP://WWW.GAO.GOV/NEW.ITEMS/D08944.PDF

THIS IS A GOVERNMENTAL REPORT ON CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS (I.E., FACTORY FARMS).

ADVERTISING

Required Resources: Advertising

TEXT

FIESER, J. (2015). INTRODUCTION TO BUSINESS ETHICS [ELECTRONIC VERSION]. RETRIEVED FROM HTTPS://CONTENT.ASHFORD.EDU/

CHAPTER 4: CONSUMERS

ARTICLES

BARNES, I. R. (1962). FALSE ADVERTISING (LINKS TO AN EXTERNAL SITE.). OHIO STATE LAW JOURNAL, 23(4), 598-664. RETRIEVED FROM HTTPS://KB.OSU.EDU/DSPACE/BITSTREAM/HANDLE/1811/68…

THIS ARTICLE PROVIDES AN EXAMINATION OF THE NATURE AND CONSEQUENCES OF FALSE ADVERTISING.

BRUNELLO, A. (2010). ETHICS AND ADVERTISING (LINKS TO AN EXTERNAL SITE.) [UNPUBLISHED CONFERENCE PAPER]. RETRIEVED FROM HTTP://WWW.BURSEDOCTORALE.RO/PUBLIC/DOCUMENTE/ARTI…

THIS PAPER EXAMINES THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ETHICS AND ADVERTISING.

DILLARD, C. (2004). FALSE ADVERTISING, ANIMALS, AND ETHICAL CONSUMPTION (LINKS TO AN EXTERNAL SITE.). ANIMAL LAW, 10(25), 25-62. RETRIEVED FROM HTTPS://WWW.ANIMALLAW.INFO/SITES/DEFAULT/FILES/VOL…

THIS ARTICLE INVESTIGATES THE WAYS THAT CONSUMERS CAN PROTECT THEMSELVES FROM FALSE ADVERTISING THROUGH THE USE OF FEDERAL AND STATE AGENCIES, INDEPENDENT REVIEW, FEDERAL AND STATE COURTS, AND PRIVATE ATTORNEYS GENERAL ACTIONS.

FREEMAN, C. P. (2009). THIS LITTLE PIGGY WENT TO PRESS: THE AMERICAN NEWS MEDIA’S CONSTRUCTION OF ANIMALS IN AGRICULTURE (LINKS TO AN EXTERNAL SITE.). THE COMMUNICATION REVIEW, 12(1), 78-103. RETRIEVED FROM HTTP://SCHOLARWORKS.GSU.EDU/CGI/VIEWCONTENT.CGI?AR…

THIS ARTICLE REPORTS HOW FARM ANIMALS ARE REPRESENTED IN NEWS MEDIA.

LIPINSKI, L. (2003). MILK: IT DOES A BODY GOOD? IT ALL DEPENDS ON WHERE IT COMES FROM–DOESN’T IT? (LINKS TO AN EXTERNAL SITE.) RETRIEVED FROM HTTPS://WWW.WESTONAPRICE.ORG/HEALTH-TOPICS/MAKING-…

THIS ARTICLE QUESTIONS THE MARKETING OF MILK AS A HEALTHY NECESSITY.

NANTEL, J., & WEEKS, W. (1996). MARKETING ETHICS: IS THERE MORE TO IT THAN THE UTILITARIAN APPROACH? (LINKS TO AN EXTERNAL SITE.) EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF MARKETING, 30(5), 9-19. RETRIEVED FROM HTTP://NEUMANN.HEC.CA/PAGES/JACQUES.NANTEL/NOTES/5…

THIS ARTICLE PRESENTS THE ARGUMENT THAT THERE IS A WIDE GAP BETWEEN THEORY AND PRACTICE IN MARKETING.

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SAFETY

Required Resources: Safety

TEXT

FIESER, J. (2015). INTRODUCTION TO BUSINESS ETHICS [ELECTRONIC VERSION]. RETRIEVED FROM HTTPS://CONTENT.ASHFORD.EDU/

CHAPTER 4: CONSUMERS

ARTICLES

DANTZER, R., & MORMÈDE, P. (1983). STRESS IN FARM ANIMALS: A NEED FOR REEVALUATION (LINKS TO AN EXTERNAL SITE.). JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE, 57, 6-18. RETRIEVED FROM HTTPS://WWW.RESEARCHGATE.NET/PUBLICATION/16846544_…

EVIDENCE FROM EXPERIMENTS IN FARM ANIMALS IS PRESENTED TO SUPPORT THE VIEW THAT PSYCHOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO ENVIRONMENTAL STIMULI ARE POWERFUL ACTIVATORS OF ENDOCRINE RESPONSES. ACCORDINGLY, THE AMOUNT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS THAT AN ANIMAL EXPERIENCES DETERMINES HOW MUCH THE PITUITARY-ADRENAL AXIS RESPONDS. IN INTENSIVE ANIMAL HUSBANDY (SUCH AS THAT IN FACTORY FARMS), CHRONIC AND MULTIPLE STRESS IS THE NORM.

LIPINSKI, L. (2003). MILK: IT DOES A BODY GOOD? IT ALL DEPENDS ON WHERE IT COMES FROM–DOESN’T IT? (LINKS TO AN EXTERNAL SITE.) RETRIEVED FROM HTTPS://WWW.WESTONAPRICE.ORG/HEALTH-TOPICS/MAKING-…

THIS ARTICLE QUESTIONS THE MARKETING OF MILK AS A HEALTHY NECESSITY.

MASON, J., & FINELLI, M. (2006). BRAVE NEW FARM? (LINKS TO AN EXTERNAL SITE.) IN P. SINGER (ED.), IN DEFENSE OF ANIMALS: THE SECOND WAVE (PP. 104-122). RETRIEVED FROM HTTPS://SFCMADRID.FILES.WORDPRESS.COM/2010/12/CAPI…

ARTICLE IN PAGES 104 TO 122 THAT PRESENTS THE STARK REALITY OF MODERN-DAY FARMED ANIMAL PRODUCTION.

O’BRIEN, T. (1997). FACTORY FARMING AND HUMAN HEALTH (LINKS TO AN EXTERNAL SITE.). RETRIEVED FROM HTTP://CITESEERX.IST.PSU.EDU/VIEWDOC/DOWNLOAD?DOI=…

THIS ARTICLE PRESENTS CURRENT MEAT PRODUCTION PRACTICES AND THE HEALTH RISKS TO BOTH HUMAN AND NON-HUMAN ANIMALS.

ROSTAGNO, M. (2010). STRESS IN FARM ANIMALS AND FOOD SAFETY: IS THERE A CONNECTION? (LINKS TO AN EXTERNAL SITE.) [FOOD SAFETY FACT SHEET]. RETRIEVED FROM HTTP://WWW.ARS.USDA.GOV/SP2USERFILES/PLACE/5020150…

THIS REPORT PRESENTS THE CONNECTION BETWEEN STRESS IN FARM ANIMALS AND FOOD SAFETY.

STATHOPOULOS, A. S. (2010). YOU ARE WHAT YOUR FOOD EATS: HOW REGULATION OF FACTORY FARM CONDITIONS COULD IMPROVE HUMAN HEALTH AND ANIMAL WELFARE ALIKE (LINKS TO AN EXTERNAL SITE.). LEGISLATION AND PUBLIC POLICY, 13, 407-444. RETRIEVED FROM HTTPS://WWW.ANIMALLAW.INFO/ARTICLE/YOU-ARE-WHAT-YO…

THIS REPORT FINDS THAT THE ANIMAL PRODUCT-HEAVY AMERICAN DIET LEADS TO DANGEROUS LEVELS OF FAT INTAKE, ANTIBIOTICS, AND GROWTH HORMONES THAT ARE ALL PART OF THE DIET AND TREATMENT OF FACTORY FARM ANIMALS.

MORAL RESPONSIBILITY

Required Resources: Moral Responsibility

TEXT

FIESER, J. (2015). INTRODUCTION TO BUSINESS ETHICS [ELECTRONIC VERSION]. RETRIEVED FROM HTTPS://CONTENT.ASHFORD.EDU/

CHAPTER 1: ETHICAL PRINCIPLES AND BUSINESS DECISIONS

ARTICLES

HAMILTON, N. D. (2008). ONE BAD DAY: THOUGHTS ON THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ANIMAL RIGHTS AND ANIMAL WELFARE (LINKS TO AN EXTERNAL SITE.). MICHIGAN LAW REVIEW FIRST IMPRESSIONS, 106, 138-142. RETRIEVED FROM HTTP://REPOSITORY.LAW.UMICH.EDU/CGI/VIEWCONTENT.CG…

THIS IS AN EXAMINATION OF THE DEBATE OF ANIMAL RIGHTS VS. ANIMAL WELFARE.

REGAN, T. (1985). THE CASE FOR ANIMAL RIGHTS (LINKS TO AN EXTERNAL SITE.). IN P. SINGER (ED.), IN DEFENSE OF ANIMALS (PP. 13-26). RETRIEVED FROM HTTP://WWW.ANIMAL-RIGHTS-LIBRARY.COM/TEXTS-M/REGAN…

THIS ARTICLE PRESENTS REGAN’S ARGUMENT FOR ANIMAL RIGHTS.

SINGER, P. (1989). ALL ANIMALS ARE EQUAL (LINKS TO AN EXTERNAL SITE.). IN T. REGAN & P. SINGER (EDS.), ANIMAL RIGHTS AND HUMAN OBLIGATIONS (PP. 148-162). RETRIEVED FROM HTTP://SPOT.COLORADO.EDU/~HEATHWOO/PHIL1200,SPR07/…

PETER SINGER PRESENTS THE ARGUMENT FOR EXTENDING THE PRINCIPLE OF EQUALITY TO ALL SPECIES.

SOLOTAROFF, P. (2013, DECEMBER 10). IN THE BELLY OF THE BEAST (LINKS TO AN EXTERNAL SITE.). ROLLING STONE. RETRIEVED FROM HTTP://WWW.ROLLINGSTONE.COM/FEATURE/BELLY-BEAST-ME…

THIS IS AN INVESTIGATIVE REPORT ON THE STATE OF ANIMALS IN FACTORY FARMS.
ACCESSIBILITY STATEMENT DOES NOT EXIST.
PRIVACY POLICY (LINKS TO AN EXTERNAL SITE.)

VINING, J. (2008, OCTOBER 10). ANIMAL CRUELTY LAWS AND FACTORY FARMING (LINKS TO AN EXTERNAL SITE.). MICHIGAN LAW REVIEW FIRST IMPRESSIONS, 106(5), 123-127. RETRIEVED FROM HTTP://PAPERS.SSRN.COM/SOL3/PAPERS.CFM?ABSTRACT_ID…

THIS ARTICLE PRESENTS THE ARGUMENT THAT LAWS CRIMINALIZING ANIMAL ABUSE SHOULD APPLY TO ANIMALS RAISED FOR FOOD. CRIMINAL LIABILITY SHOULD INCLUDE, THE ARGUMENT GOES, CRIMINAL LIABILITY OF THE CORPORATE ENTITY ITSELF, AND IT WOULD THUS ALSO INTRODUCE THE MOST EFFECTIVE REGULATION OF INDIVIDUAL HANDLING OF FARM ANIMALS.

MULTIMEDIA

ALFIE A. (2010, NOVEMBER 22). MEET YOUR MEAT (LINKS TO AN EXTERNAL SITE.) [VIDEO FILE]. RETRIEVED FROM

THIS IS A BRIEF EXPOSÉ ABOUT HOW FARM ANIMALS RAISED FOR FOOD ARE TREATED ON TODAY’S FACTORY FARMS. PLEASE BEWARE THAT IS DIFFICULT TO WATCH, YET IT IS IMPORTANT TO GET A GLIMPSE OF THE REALITIES BEHIND MUCH OF WHAT WE FIND IN RESTAURANTS AND THE SUPERMARKET. TRANSCRIPT
ACCESSIBILITY STATEMENT (LINKS TO AN EXTERNAL SITE.)
PRIVACY POLICY (LINKS TO AN EXTERNAL SITE.)

CARNAGIE COUNCIL FOR ETHICS IN INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS (2011, OCTOBER 26). PETER SINGER: ANIMAL EQUALITY (LINKS TO AN EXTERNAL SITE.) [VIDEO FILE] RETRIEVED FROM
ACCESSIBILITY STATEMENT (LINKS TO AN EXTERNAL SITE.)
PRIVACY POLICY (LINKS TO AN EXTERNAL SITE.)

EASYASPEACE. (2008, APRIL 7). TOM REGAN: A CASE FOR ANIMAL RIGHTS (LINKS TO AN EXTERNAL SITE.) [VIDEO FILE] RETRIEVED FROM

PROFESSOR REGAN PRESENTS THE ARGUMENT THAT ANIMALS HAVE RIGHTS. TRANSCRIPT
ACCESSIBILITY STATEMENT (LINKS TO AN EXTERNAL SITE.)
PRIVACY POLICY (LINKS TO AN EXTERNAL SITE.)

EBERT, R. [RAINER EBERT]. (2016, NOVEMBER 12). PROFESSOR CARL COHEN: WHY ANIMALS DO NOT HAVE RIGHTS (LINKS TO AN EXTERNAL SITE.) [VIDEO FILE]. RETRIEVED FROM

PROFESSOR COHEN PRESENTS THE ARGUMENT THAT ANIMALS DO NOT HAVE RIGHTS. TRANSCRIPT
ACCESSIBILITY STATEMENT (LINKS TO AN EXTERNAL SITE.)
PRIVACY POLICY (LINKS TO AN EXTERNAL SITE.)

Prof. Angela

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